20 Dec 2021

20 Dec 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GI.

A muographic study of a scoria cone from 11 directions using nuclear emulsion cloud chambers

Seigo Miyamoto1, Shogo Nagahara1,2, Kunihiro Morishima3, Toshiyuki Nakano3, Masato Koyama4, and Yusuke Suzuki5 Seigo Miyamoto et al.
  • 1Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032, Japan
  • 2Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, 3-11 Tsurukabuto, Nada-ku, Kobe Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan
  • 3Fundamental Particle Physics Laboratory, Graduate School of Science of Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602, Japan
  • 4Department of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 5STORY, Ltd., 2-2-5-2321, Minatomachi, Naniwa-ku, Osaka City, Osaka, Japan

Abstract. One of the key challenges for muographic studies is to reveal the detailed 3D density structure of a volcano by increasing the number of observation directions. 3D density imaging by multi-directional muography requires that the individual differences in the performance of the installed muon detectors are small and that the results from each detector can be derived without any bias in the data analysis. Here we describe a pilot muographic study of the Izu–Omuroyama scoria cone in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, from 11 directions, using a new nuclear emulsion detector design optimized for quick installation in the field. We describe the details of the data analysis and present a validation of the results.

The Izu–Omuroyama scoria cone is an ideal target for the first multi-directional muographic study, given its expected internal density structure and the topography around the cone. We optimized the design of the nuclear emulsion detector for rapid installation at multiple observation sites in the field, and installed these at 11 sites around the volcano. The images in the developed emulsion films were digitized into segmented tracks with a high-speed automated readout system. The muon tracks in each emulsion detector were then reconstructed. After the track selection, including straightness filtering, the detection efficiency of the muons was estimated. Finally, the density distributions in 2D angular space were derived for each observation site by using a muon flux and attenuation models.

The observed muon flux was compared with the expected value in the free sky, and is 88 % ± 4 % in the forward direction and 92 % ± 2 % in the backward direction. The density values were validated by comparison with the values obtained from gravity measurements, and are broadly consistent, except for one site. The excess density at this one site may indicate that the density inside the cone is non-axisymmetric, which is consistent with a previous geological study.

Seigo Miyamoto et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gi-2021-35', Anonymous Referee #1, 14 Jan 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gi-2021-35', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Jan 2022

Seigo Miyamoto et al.

Seigo Miyamoto et al.


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Short summary
In recent years, imaging of density inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons, has been studied. In some previous studies, observations were conducted in 2 or 3 directions to obtain 3D resolution. For higher resolution, we tried to observe a volcano from 11 directions using special photographic films. The observation and analytical techniques developed in this study may be applied to other volcanoes and large objects. Reconstructing 3D images of the volcano is in progress using the obtained data.