Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 163–179, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-5-163-2016

Special issue: Multi-disciplinary research and integrated monitoring at the...

Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 163–179, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-5-163-2016

Research article 30 May 2016

Research article | 30 May 2016

Sodankylä manual snow survey program

Leena Leppänen1, Anna Kontu1, Henna-Reetta Hannula1, Heidi Sjöblom2, and Jouni Pulliainen1 Leena Leppänen et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research, Sodankylä, Finland
  • 2Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE). In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day snow pit measurements include observations of HS, SWE, temperature, density, stratigraphy, grain size, specific surface area (SSA) and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

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Short summary
The manual snow survey program of Finnish Meteorological Institute consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal snowpack in Sodankylä, in northern Finland. Systematic snow measurements began in 1911 with snow depth and snow water equivalent. In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from snow pits. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack.