Articles | Volume 1, issue 2
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 1, 185–196, 2012
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-1-185-2012

Special issue: High energy geophysics: muon and neutrino radiography

Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 1, 185–196, 2012
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-1-185-2012

Review article 21 Nov 2012

Review article | 21 Nov 2012

Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

S. Cecchini1 and M. Spurio1,2 S. Cecchini and M. Spurio
  • 1INFN, sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40100 Bologna, Italy
  • 2Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40100 Bologna, Italy

Abstract. We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examined. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum) are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.