Articles | Volume 8, issue 2
Research article 09 Dec 2019
Research article | 09 Dec 2019
Creating HiRISE digital elevation models for Mars using the open-source Ames Stereo Pipeline
Adam J. Hepburn et al.
No articles found.
Felix S. L. Ng
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Current theory predicts climate signals in the vein chemistry of ice cores to migrate, hampering their dating. I show that the Gibbs-Thomson effect, which has been overlooked, causes fast diffusion that prevents signals from surviving into deep ice. Therefore the deep climate peaks in Antarctic and Greenland ice cores must be due to impurities in the ice matrix (outside veins) and safe from migration. These findings reset our understanding of postdepositional changes of ice-core climate signals.
Stephen J. Livingstone, Emma L. M. Lewington, Chris D. Clark, Robert D. Storrar, Andrew J. Sole, Isabelle McMartin, Nico Dewald, and Felix Ng
The Cryosphere, 14, 1989–2004,Short summary
We map series of aligned mounds (esker beads) across central Nunavut, Canada. Mounds are interpreted to have formed roughly annually as sediment carried by subglacial rivers is deposited at the ice margin. Chains of mounds are formed as the ice retreats. This high-resolution (annual) record allows us to constrain the pace of ice retreat, sediment fluxes, and the style of drainage through time. In particular, we suggest that eskers in general record a composite signature of ice-marginal drainage.
Alex Brisbourne, Bernd Kulessa, Thomas Hudson, Lianne Harrison, Paul Holland, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, David Ashmore, Bryn Hubbard, Emma Pearce, James White, Adam Booth, Keith Nicholls, and Andrew Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 887–896,Short summary
Melting of the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica may lead to its collapse. To help estimate its lifespan we need to understand how the ocean can circulate beneath. This requires knowledge of the geometry of the sub-shelf cavity. New and existing measurements of seabed depth are integrated to produce a map of the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf. The observed deep seabed may provide a pathway for circulation of warm ocean water but at the same time reduce rapid tidal melt at a critical location.
Evan S. Miles, C. Scott Watson, Fanny Brun, Etienne Berthier, Michel Esteves, Duncan J. Quincey, Katie E. Miles, Bryn Hubbard, and Patrick Wagnon
The Cryosphere, 12, 3891–3905,Short summary
We use high-resolution satellite imagery and field visits to assess the growth and drainage of a lake on Changri Shar Glacier in the Everest region, and its impact. The lake filled and drained within 3 months, which is a shorter interval than would be detected by standard monitoring protocols, but forced re-routing of major trails in several locations. The water appears to have flowed beneath Changri Shar and Khumbu glaciers in an efficient manner, suggesting pre-existing developed flow paths.
Suzanne L. Bevan, Adrian Luckman, Bryn Hubbard, Bernd Kulessa, David Ashmore, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Martin O'Leary, Adam Booth, Heidi Sevestre, and Daniel McGrath
The Cryosphere, 11, 2743–2753,Short summary
Five 90 m boreholes drilled into an Antarctic Peninsula ice shelf show units of ice that are denser than expected and must have formed from refrozen surface melt which has been buried and transported downstream. We used surface flow speeds and snow accumulation rates to work out where and when these units formed. Results show that, as well as recent surface melt, a period of strong melt occurred during the 18th century. Surface melt is thought to be a factor in causing recent ice-shelf break-up.
Penelope How, Douglas I. Benn, Nicholas R. J. Hulton, Bryn Hubbard, Adrian Luckman, Heïdi Sevestre, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Katrin Lindbäck, Jack Kohler, and Wim Boot
The Cryosphere, 11, 2691–2710,Short summary
This study provides valuable insight into subglacial hydrology and dynamics at tidewater glaciers, which remains a poorly understood area of glaciology. It is a unique study because of the wealth of information provided by simultaneous observations of glacier hydrology at Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard. All these elements build a strong conceptual picture of the glacier's hydrological regime over the 2014 melt season.
Katie E. Miles, Bryn Hubbard, Tristam D. L. Irvine-Fynn, Evan S. Miles, Duncan J. Quincey, and Ann V. Rowan
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The production and routing of meltwater through glaciers is important because that water influences glacier sliding, and represents a resource in some instances and a hazard in others. Despite this importance, very little is known about the hydrology of debris-covered glaciers, which are commonly located at high altitudes. Here, we present a review of the hydrology of debris-covered glaciers, summarizing the current state of knowledge and identify potential future research priorities.
Peter Kuipers Munneke, Daniel McGrath, Brooke Medley, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, Bernd Kulessa, Daniela Jansen, Adam Booth, Paul Smeets, Bryn Hubbard, David Ashmore, Michiel Van den Broeke, Heidi Sevestre, Konrad Steffen, Andrew Shepherd, and Noel Gourmelen
The Cryosphere, 11, 2411–2426,Short summary
How much snow falls on the Larsen C ice shelf? This is a relevant question, because this ice shelf might collapse sometime this century. To know if and when this could happen, we found out how much snow falls on its surface. This was difficult, because there are only very few measurements. Here, we used data from automatic weather stations, sled-pulled radars, and a climate model to find that melting the annual snowfall produces about 20 cm of water in the NE and over 70 cm in the SW.
J. Rachel Carr, Heather Bell, Rebecca Killick, and Tom Holt
The Cryosphere, 11, 2149–2174,Short summary
Glaciers on Novaya Zemlya (NVZ) retreated rapidly between 2000 and 2013. This was far faster than the previous 25 years, but retreat then slowed from 2013 onward. This may result from changes in broadscale climatic patterns. Glaciers ending in lakes retreated at a similar rate to those ending in the ocean, and retreat rates were very consistent between glaciers, which contrasts with previous studies.
Morgane Philippe, Jean-Louis Tison, Karen Fjøsne, Bryn Hubbard, Helle A. Kjær, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Reinhard Drews, Simon G. Sheldon, Kevin De Bondt, Philippe Claeys, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 10, 2501–2516,Short summary
The reconstruction of past snow accumulation rates is crucial in the context of recent climate change and sea level rise. We measured ~ 250 years of snow accumulation using a 120 m ice core drilled in coastal East Antarctica, where such long records are very scarce. This study is the first to show an increase in snow accumulation, beginning in the 20th and particularly marked in the last 50 years, thereby confirming model predictions of increased snowfall associated with climate change.
Reinhard Drews, Joel Brown, Kenichi Matsuoka, Emmanuel Witrant, Morgane Philippe, Bryn Hubbard, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 10, 811–823,Short summary
The thickness of ice shelves is typically inferred using hydrostatic equilibrium which requires knowledge of the firn density. Here, we infer density from wide-angle radar using a novel algorithm including traveltime inversion and ray tracing. We find that firn is denser inside a 2 km wide ice-shelf channel which is confirmed by optical televiewing of two boreholes. Such horizontal density variations must be accounted for when using the hydrostatic ice thickness for determining basal melt rate.
A. E. Jowett, E. Hanna, F. Ng, P. Huybrechts, and I. Janssens
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
D. Jansen, A. J. Luckman, A. Cook, S. Bevan, B. Kulessa, B. Hubbard, and P. R. Holland
The Cryosphere, 9, 1223–1227,Short summary
Within the last year, a large rift in the southern part of the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, propagated towards the inner part of the ice shelf. In this study we present the development of the rift as derived from remote sensing data and assess the impact of possible calving scenarios on the future stability of the Larsen C Ice Shelf, using a numerical model. We find that the calving front is likely to become unstable after the anticipated calving events.
N. F. Glasser, S. J. A. Jennings, M. J. Hambrey, and B. Hubbard
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 239–249,Short summary
We present a new map of the surface features of the entire Antarctic Ice Sheet. The map was compiled from satellite images. It shows many flow-parallel structures that we call "longitudinal ice-surface structures". Their location mirrors the location of fast-flowing glaciers and ice streams in the ice sheet. Their distribution indicates that the major ice-flow configuration of the ice sheet may have remained largely unchanged for the last few hundred years, and possibly even longer.
B. Hubbard, C. Souness, and S. Brough
The Cryosphere, 8, 2047–2061,Short summary
We address the dynamic glaciology of glacier-like forms (GLFs) on Mars, over 1300 of which are located in the planet's midlatitude regions. We present case studies to gain insight into (i) the former extent of GLFs, (ii) GLF motion and surface crevassing, (iii) GLF debris transfer (suggesting a best-estimate surface velocity of 7.5 mm/a over the past 2 Ma), and (iv) putative GLF surface hydrology. Finally, we present several possible research directions for the future study of Martian GLFs.
Related subject area
Space instrumentsMultiresolution wavelet analysis applied to GRACE range-rate residualsMars submillimeter sensor on microsatellite: sensor feasibility studyTARANIS XGRE and IDEE detection capability of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and associated electron beamsWind reconstruction algorithm for Viking Lander 1One-chip analog circuits for a new type of plasma wave receiver on board space missionsThe MetNet vehicle: a lander to deploy environmental stations for local and global investigations of MarsMass spectrometry of planetary exospheres at high relative velocity: direct comparison of open- and closed-source measurementsInfluence of probe geometry on measurement results of non-ideal thermal conductivity sensorsAnalysis of COSIMA spectra: Bayesian approachHigh-frequency performance of electric field sensors aboard the RESONANCE satelliteCOSIMA data analysis using multivariate techniquesCLUSTER–STAFF search coil magnetometer calibration – comparisons with FGMIn-flight calibration of double-probe electric field measurements on ClusterIn-flight calibration of the Cluster PEACE sensorsIn-flight calibration of the Hot Ion Analyser on board ClusterBackground subtraction for the Cluster/CODIF plasma ion mass spectrometerInterpretation of Cluster WBD frequency conversion mode dataEnhanced timing accuracy for Cluster dataIn-flight calibration of the Cluster/CODIF sensorCalibration of non-ideal thermal conductivity sensorsInvestigating thermal properties of gas-filled planetary regoliths using a thermal probe
Saniya Behzadpour, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, Jakob Flury, Beate Klinger, and Sujata Goswami
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 197–207,Short summary
In this paper, we present an approach to represent underlying errors in measurements and physical models in the temporal gravity field determination using GRACE observations. This study provides an opportunity to improve the error model and the accuracy of the GRACE parameter estimation, as well as its successor GRACE Follow-On.
Richard Larsson, Yasuko Kasai, Takeshi Kuroda, Shigeru Sato, Takayoshi Yamada, Hiroyuki Maezawa, Yutaka Hasegawa, Toshiyuki Nishibori, Shinichi Nakasuka, and Paul Hartogh
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 331–341,Short summary
We are planning a Mars mission. The mission will carry an instrument capable of measuring and mapping molecular oxygen and water in the Martian atmosphere, as well as the temperature, wind, and magnetic field. Water and oxygen are vital parts of the Martian atmospheric chemistry and must be better understood. Using computer simulation results, the paper gives a description of how the measurements will work, some problems we expect to encounter, and the sensitivity of the measurements.
David Sarria, Francois Lebrun, Pierre-Louis Blelly, Remi Chipaux, Philippe Laurent, Jean-Andre Sauvaud, Lubomir Prech, Pierre Devoto, Damien Pailot, Jean-Pierre Baronick, and Miles Lindsey-Clark
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 239–256,Short summary
The TARANIS spacecraft will be launched at the end of 2018. It is one of the first dedicated to the study of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGF) and associated electrons (TEB), produced by thunderstorms. We present two of the six instruments on board the TARANIS spacecraft: a gamma-ray and energetic electron detector (XGRE) and an electron detector (IDEE). We compare them to other instruments that have already detected TGF and TEB, and use them to estimate the detection rate of TARANIS.
Tuomas Kynkäänniemi, Osku Kemppinen, Ari-Matti Harri, and Walter Schmidt
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 217–229,Short summary
The new wind reconstruction algorithm developed in this article extends the amount of available sols from the Viking Lander 1 (VL1) mission from 350 to 2245. The reconstruction of wind measurement data enables the study of both short-term phenomena, such as daily variations in wind conditions or dust devils, and long-term phenomena, such as the seasonal variations in Martian tides.
Takahiro Zushi, Hirotsugu Kojima, and Hiroshi Yamakawa
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 159–167,Short summary
Plasma waves are important observational targets for scientific missions investigating space plasma phenomena. Conventional plasma wave receivers have the disadvantages of a large size and a narrow dynamic range. We proposes a new receiver that overcomes the disadvantages of conventional receivers. The analog section of the new receiver was realized using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology in order to reduce the size, and an ASIC chip was successfully developed.
Ari-Matti Harri, Konstantin Pichkadze, Lev Zeleny, Luis Vazquez, Walter Schmidt, Sergey Alexashkin, Oleg Korablev, Hector Guerrero, Jyri Heilimo, Mikhail Uspensky, Valery Finchenko, Vyacheslav Linkin, Ignacio Arruego, Maria Genzer, Alexander Lipatov, Jouni Polkko, Mark Paton, Hannu Savijärvi, Harri Haukka, Tero Siili, Vladimir Khovanskov, Boris Ostesko, Andrey Poroshin, Marina Diaz-Michelena, Timo Siikonen, Matti Palin, Viktor Vorontsov, Alexander Polyakov, Francisco Valero, Osku Kemppinen, Jussi Leinonen, and Pilar Romero
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 103–124,Short summary
Investigations of Mars – its atmosphere, surface and interior – require simultaneous, distributed in situ measurements. We have developed an innovative prototype of the Mars Network Lander (MNL), a small lander/penetrator with a 20 % payload mass fraction. MNL features an innovative Entry, Descent and Landing System to increase reliability and reduce the system mass. It is ideally suited for piggy-backing on spacecraft, for network missions and pathfinders for high-value landed missions.
Stefan Meyer, Marek Tulej, and Peter Wurz
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 1–8,Short summary
We developed a prototype of the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission of ESA. NIM will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. The NIM prototype was successfully tested under realistic conditions and we find that the closed source behaves as expected within the JUICE mission phase velocities. No additional fragmentation of the species recorded with the closed source is observed.
Patrick Tiefenbacher, Norbert I. Kömle, Wolfgang Macher, and Günter Kargl
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 383–401,
H. J. Lehto, B. Zaprudin, K. M. Lehto, T. Lönnberg, J. Silén, J. Rynö, H. Krüger, M. Hilchenbach, and J. Kissel
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 139–148,
M. Sampl, W. Macher, C. Gruber, T. Oswald, M. Kapper, H. O. Rucker, and M. Mogilevsky
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 81–88,Short summary
We present the high-frequency properties of the eight electric field sensors as proposed to be launched on the spacecraft “RESONANCE” in the near future. Due to the close proximity of the conducting spacecraft body, the sensors (antennas) have complex receiving features and need to be well understood for an optimal mission and spacecraft design. In particular techniques like wave polarization analysis and incident direction finding depend crucially on the presented antenna characteristics.
J. Silén, H. Cottin, M. Hilchenbach, J. Kissel, H. Lehto, S. Siljeström, and K. Varmuza
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 45–56,Short summary
COSIMA, an advanced TOF-SIMS instrument measuring the mass spectrum of dust grains collected at comet P67 by the ROSETTA spacecraft, is predicted to encounter complex mixtures of minerals and organic compounds. To extract information from this data set, we have developed a multivariate technique tested on laboratory measurements made by an identical instrument under controlled conditions. We have shown that minerals can be identified and separated with high level of confidence.
P. Robert, N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin, R. Piberne, Y. de Conchy, C. Lacombe, V. Bouzid, B. Grison, D. Alison, and P. Canu
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 153–177,
Y. V. Khotyaintsev, P.-A. Lindqvist, C. M. Cully, A. I. Eriksson, and M. André
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 143–151,
N. Doss, A. N. Fazakerley, B. Mihaljčić, A. D. Lahiff, R. J. Wilson, D. Kataria, I. Rozum, G. Watson, and Y. Bogdanova
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 59–70,
A. Blagau, I. Dandouras, A. Barthe, S. Brunato, G. Facskó, and V. Constantinescu
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 49–58,
C. G. Mouikis, L. M. Kistler, G. Wang, and Y. Liu
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 41–48,
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Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 21–27,
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Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 323–328,
L. M. Kistler, C. G. Mouikis, and K. J. Genestreti
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 225–235,
N. I. Kömle, W. Macher, G. Kargl, and M. S. Bentley
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 151–156,
M. D. Paton, A.-M. Harri, T. Mäkinen, and S. F. Green
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Currently, there exist thousands of unprocessed stereo pairs of satellite imagery which can be used to create models of the surface of Mars. This paper sets out a new open–source and free to use pipeline for creating these models. Our pipeline produces models of comparable quality to the limited number released to date but remains free to use and easily implemented by researchers, who may not necessarily have prior experience of DEM creation.
Currently, there exist thousands of unprocessed stereo pairs of satellite imagery which can be...