Articles | Volume 13, issue 1
Research article
16 Jan 2024
Research article |  | 16 Jan 2024

Testing a novel sensor design to jointly measure cosmic-ray neutrons, muons and gamma rays for non-invasive soil moisture estimation

Stefano Gianessi, Matteo Polo, Luca Stevanato, Marcello Lunardon, Till Francke, Sascha E. Oswald, Hami Said Ahmed, Arsenio Toloza, Georg Weltin, Gerd Dercon, Emil Fulajtar, Lee Heng, and Gabriele Baroni

Related authors

Technical Note: Revisiting the general calibration of cosmic-ray neutron sensors to estimate soil water content
Maik Heistermann, Till Francke, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 28, 989–1000,,, 2024
Short summary
Projecting sediment export from two highly glacierized alpine catchments under climate change: exploring non-parametric regression as an analysis tool
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Peter Martin Grosse, and Axel Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 28, 139–161,,, 2024
Short summary
Three years of soil moisture observations by a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensing cluster at an agricultural research site in north-east Germany
Maik Heistermann, Till Francke, Lena Scheiffele, Katya Dimitrova Petrova, Christian Budach, Martin Schrön, Benjamin Trost, Daniel Rasche, Andreas Güntner, Veronika Döpper, Michael Förster, Markus Köhli, Lisa Angermann, Nikolaos Antonoglou, Manuela Zude-Sasse, and Sascha E. Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3243–3262,,, 2023
Short summary
Improved representation of soil moisture simulations through incorporation of cosmic-ray neutron count measurements in a large-scale hydrologic model
Eshrat Fatima, Rohini Kumar, Sabine Attinger, Maren Kaluza, Oldrich Rakovec, Corinna Rebmann, Rafael Rosolem, Sascha Oswald, Luis Samaniego, Steffen Zacharias, and Martin Schrön
EGUsphere,,, 2023
Short summary
Reconstructing five decades of sediment export from two glacierized high-alpine catchments in Tyrol, Austria, using nonparametric regression
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Peter Martin Grosse, Christoph Mayer, and Axel Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1841–1863,,, 2023
Short summary

Related subject area

A distributed-temperature-sensing-based soil temperature profiler
Bart Schilperoort, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Bas van de Wiel, and Miriam Coenders-Gerrits
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 13, 85–95,,, 2024
Short summary
Ultra-low-cost manual soil respiration chamber
Bartosz M. Zawilski and Vincent Bustillo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 13, 51–62,,, 2024
Short summary
Calibrating low-cost rain gauge sensors for their applications in IoT infrastructures to densify environmental monitoring networks
Robert Krüger, Pierre Karrasch, and Anette Eltner
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss.,,, 2023
Revised manuscript accepted for GI
Short summary
Development of an expendable current profiler based on modulation and demodulation
Keyu Zhou, Qisheng Zhang, Guangyuan Chen, Zucan Lin, Yunliang Liu, and Pengyu Li
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 12, 57–69,,, 2023
Short summary
Research into using a fiber Bragg grating sensor group for three-dimensional in situ stress measurement
Yimin Liu, Zhengyang Hou, Hao Zhou, Guiyun Gao, Lu Yang, Pu Wang, and Peng Wang
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 59–73,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Abraham, M. T., Satyam, N., Rosi, A., Pradhan, B., and Segoni, S.: Usage of antecedent soil moisture for improving the performance of rainfall thresholds for landslide early warning, CATENA, 200, 105147,, 2021. 
Andreasen, M., Jensen, K. H., Zreda, M., Desilets, D., Bogena, H., and Looms, M. C.: Modeling cosmic ray neutron field measurements, Water Resour. Res., 52, 6451–6471,, 2016. 
Andreasen, M., Jensen, K. H., Desilets, D., Zreda, M., Bogena, H. R., and Looms, M. C.: Cosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interception, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1875–1894,, 2017a. 
Andreasen, M., Jensen, K. H., Desilets, D., Franz, T. E., Zreda, M., Bogena, H. R., and Looms, M. C.: Status and Perspectives on the Cosmic-Ray Neutron Method for Soil Moisture Estimation and Other Environmental Science Applications, Vadose Zone J., 16,, 2017b. 
Baatz, R., Bogena, H. R., Hendricks Franssen, H.-J., Huisman, J. A., Montzka, C., and Vereecken, H.: An empirical vegetation correction for soil water content quantification using cosmic ray probes, Water Resour. Res., 51, 2030–2046,, 2015. 
Short summary
Soil moisture monitoring is important for many applications, from improving weather prediction to supporting agriculture practices. Our capability to measure this variable is still, however, limited. In this study, we show the tests conducted on a new soil moisture sensor at several locations. The results show that the new sensor is a valid and compact alternative to more conventional, non-invasive soil moisture sensors that can pave the way for a wide range of applications.