Articles | Volume 11, issue 2
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 279–291, 2022
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 279–291, 2022
Research article
05 Aug 2022
Research article | 05 Aug 2022

Developing a low-cost frequency-domain electromagnetic induction instrument

Gavin Wilson et al.

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Cited articles

Ahmad, M. N., Iqbal, F., Maqbool, S., and Arshad, M. B.: Low-Cost Resistivity Meter for Groundwater Exploration Using High Voltage Experimentations, Int. J. Econ. Environ. Geol., 10, 35–39,, 2019. a
Alexander, C. and Sadiku, M.: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, ISBN 10 1260226409, ISBN 13 9781260226409, 2007. a, b, c
analogRead function: Analogread, Arduino IDE Reference,, last access: 15 January 2022. a
Boaga, J.: The use of FDEM in hydrogeophysics: A review, J. Appl. Geophys., 139, 36–46,, 2017. a
Clark, J. A., Page, R. T., Franklin, R., Miller, N. M., and Morken, M. O.: Appropriate geophysics technology: Inexpensive instruments for water exploration at a local level in developing nations, Geol. Soc. Am., 520, 171–181,, 2016. a
Short summary
The widespread availability of low-cost electronics has created new opportunities for affordable geophysical equipment. Electromagnetic geophysical methods allow users to examine the electrical properties of the ground. The Colorado School of Mines electromagnetic system (CSM-EM) is a proof of concept instrument capable of sensing shallow conductive objects and costs under USD 400 to build. We tested the system in a laboratory setting and validated it over a metal target outdoors.