Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Research article
14 Apr 2023
Research article |  | 14 Apr 2023

Development of an expendable current profiler based on modulation and demodulation

Keyu Zhou, Qisheng Zhang, Guangyuan Chen, Zucan Lin, Yunliang Liu, and Pengyu Li

Related authors

Internet-of-things-based four-dimensional high-density electrical instrument for geophysical prospecting
Keyu Zhou, Qisheng Zhang, Yongdong Liu, Zhen Wu, Zucan Lin, Bentian Zhao, Xingyuan Jiang, and Pengyu Li
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 141–151,,, 2021
Short summary

Related subject area

Research into using a fiber Bragg grating sensor group for three-dimensional in situ stress measurement
Yimin Liu, Zhengyang Hou, Hao Zhou, Guiyun Gao, Lu Yang, Pu Wang, and Peng Wang
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 59–73,,, 2022
Short summary
Signal processing for in situ detection of effective heat pulse probe spacing radius as the basis of a self-calibrating heat pulse probe
Nicholas J. Kinar, John W. Pomeroy, and Bing Si
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 293–315,,, 2020
Short summary
Technical note: A low-cost albedometer for snow and ice measurements – theoretical results and application on a tropical mountain in Bolivia
Thomas Condom, Marie Dumont, Lise Mourre, Jean Emmanuel Sicart, Antoine Rabatel, Alessandra Viani, and Alvaro Soruco
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 169–178,,, 2018
Short summary
Proof of concept: temperature-sensing waders for environmental sciences
Rolf Hut, Scott Tyler, and Tim van Emmerik
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 45–51,,, 2016
Short summary
Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?
Z. Liu and C. W. Higgins
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 65–73,,, 2015
Short summary

Cited articles

Dohnal G.: Weak signal detection in SPC[J], Appl. Stoch. Model. Bus. Ind., 36, 225–236,, 2019. 
Dunlap, J., Drever, R., and Sanford, T.: Experience with an expendable temperature and velocity profiler, in: Proceedings of the Oceans 81, 16–18 September 1981, Boston, MA, USA, 372–376,, 1981. 
Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Global mapping of diapycnal diffusivity in the deep ocean based on the results of expendable current profiler (XCP) surveys, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, 151–160,, 2006. 
INA128: INA12x Precision, Low-Power Instrumentation Amplifiers,, last access: 20 June 2022. 
Jenkins, A. D. and Bye, J. A. T.: Some aspects of the work of V. W. Ekman, Polar Rec., 42, 15–22,, 2006. 
Short summary
The expendable current profiler (XCP) is a single-use instrument that rapidly measures currents, including the velocity, flow direction, and temperature of seawater. This study improves upon the design of the XCP to reduce the cost of the single-use devices. This has been achieved by adopting signal modulation and demodulation to transmit analog signals on an enamelled wire and digitizing the signal above the surface of the water.