Articles | Volume 8, issue 1
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 97–111, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-97-2019
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 97–111, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-97-2019

Research article 14 Mar 2019

Research article | 14 Mar 2019

Artifacts from manganese reduction in rock samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) slicing for X-ray microspectroscopy

Dorothea S. Macholdt et al.

Related authors

EUREC4A
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-18,https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-18, 2021
Preprint under review for ESSD
Short summary
Bioaerosols in the Amazon rain forest: Temporal variations and vertical profiles of Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2020-469,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2020-469, 2021
Preprint under review for BG
Short summary
Insights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumes
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-357-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-357-2021, 2021
Short summary
Emissions relationships in western forest fire plumes – Part 1: Reducing the effect of mixing errors on emission factors
Robert B. Chatfield, Meinrat O. Andreae, ARCTAS Science Team, and SEAC4RS Science Team
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7069–7096, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-7069-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-7069-2020, 2020
Short summary
Long-term deposition and condensation ice-nucleating particle measurements from four stations across the globe
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15983-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15983-2020, 2020
Short summary

Related subject area

Data quality
Auroral classification ergonomics and the implications for machine learning
Derek McKay and Andreas Kvammen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 267–273, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-9-267-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-9-267-2020, 2020
Short summary
The influence of sample geometry on the permeability of a porous sandstone
Michael J. Heap
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 55–61, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-55-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-55-2019, 2019
Short summary
The operator difference in absolute geomagnetic measurements
Yufei He, Xudong Zhao, Jianjun Wang, Fuxi Yang, Xijing Li, Changjiang Xin, Wansheng Yan, and Wentong Tian
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 21–27, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-21-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-8-21-2019, 2019
One second vector and scalar magnetic measurements at the low-latitude Choutuppal (CPL) magnetic observatory
Nelapatla Phani Chandrasekhar, Sai Vijay Kumar Potharaju, Kusumita Arora, Chandra Shakar Rao Kasuba, Leonid Rakhlin, Sergey Tymoshyn, Laszlo Merenyi, Anusha Chilukuri, Jayashree Bulusu, and Sergey Khomutov
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 547–560, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-6-547-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-6-547-2017, 2017
Short summary
Data quality control and tools in passive seismic experiments exemplified on the Czech broadband seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project
Luděk Vecsey, Jaroslava Plomerová, Petr Jedlička, Helena Munzarová, Vladislav Babuška, and the AlpArray working group
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 505–521, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-6-505-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-6-505-2017, 2017
Short summary

Cited articles

Balcells, L., Abad, L., Rojas, H., and Martínez, B.: Material damage induced by nanofabrication processes in manganite thin films, Nanotechnology, 19, 135307, https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/13/135307, 2008. 
Barber, D. J.: Radiation damage in ion-milled specimens: characteristics, effects and methods of damage limitation, Ultramicroscopy, 52, 101–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3991(93)90025-S, 1993. 
Bargar, J., Tebo, B., K., P., McCubbery, D., Chiu, V., and B., T.: Manganese Oxide Biomineralization by Spores of the Marine Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2001. 
Bassim, N. D., De Gregorio, B. T., Kilcoyne, A. L. D., Scott, K., Chou, T., Wirick, S., Cody, G., and Stroud, R. M.: Minimizing damage during FIB sample preparation of soft materials, J. Microsc., 245, 288–301, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2818.2011.03570.x, 2012. 
Betz, G. and Wehner, G. K.: Sputtering of multicomponent materials, in: Sputtering by Particle Bombardment II, Topics in Applied Physics, vol 52., edited by: Behrish, R., 11–90, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, 1983. 
Download
Short summary
Focused ion beam (FIB) slicing is a widely used technique to prepare ultrathin slices for the microanalysis of geological and environmental samples. During our investigations of the manganese oxidation states in rock varnish slices, we found an FIB-related reduction of manganese(IV) to manganese(II) at the samples’ surfaces. This study characterizes the observed reduction artifacts and emphasizes that caution is needed in the analysis of transition metal oxidation states upon FIB preparation.