Articles | Volume 4, issue 1
02 Mar 2015
Research article | 02 Mar 2015
A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff
R. D. Stewart et al.
No articles found.
Clément Roques, David E. Rupp, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Laurent Longuevergne, Elizabeth R. Jachens, Gordon Grant, Luc Aquilina, and John S. Selker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4391–4405,Short summary
Streamflow dynamics are directly dependent on contributions from groundwater, with hillslope heterogeneity being a major driver in controlling both spatial and temporal variabilities in recession discharge behaviors. By analysing new model results, this paper identifies the major structural features of aquifers driving streamflow dynamics. It provides important guidance to inform catchment-to-regional-scale models, with key geological knowledge influencing groundwater–surface water interactions.
Toby D. Jackson, Sarab Sethi, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolas Angelou, Amanda Bunce, Tim van Emmerik, Marine Duperat, Jean-Claude Ruel, Axel Wellpott, Skip Van Bloem, Alexis Achim, Brian Kane, Dominick M. Ciruzzi, Steven P. Loheide II, Ken James, Daniel Burcham, John Moore, Dirk Schindler, Sven Kolbe, Kilian Wiegmann, Mark Rudnicki, Victor J. Lieffers, John Selker, Andrew V. Gougherty, Tim Newson, Andrew Koeser, Jason Miesbauer, Roger Samelson, Jim Wagner, Anthony R. Ambrose, Andreas Detter, Steffen Rust, David Coomes, and Barry Gardiner
Biogeosciences, 18, 4059–4072,Short summary
We have all seen trees swaying in the wind, but did you know that this motion can teach us about ecology? We summarized tree motion data from many different studies and looked for similarities between trees. We found that the motion of trees in conifer forests is quite similar to each other, whereas open-grown trees and broadleaf forests show more variation. It has been suggested that additional damping or amplification of tree motion occurs at high wind speeds, but we found no evidence of this.
Justus G. V. van Ramshorst, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Bart Schilperoort, Bas J. H. van de Wiel, Jonathan G. Izett, John S. Selker, Chad W. Higgins, Hubert H. G. Savenije, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5423–5439,Short summary
In this work we present experimental results of a novel actively heated fiber-optic (AHFO) observational wind-probing technique. We utilized a controlled wind-tunnel setup to assess both the accuracy and precision of AHFO under a range of operational conditions (wind speed, angles of attack and temperature differences). AHFO has the potential to provide high-resolution distributed observations of wind speeds, allowing for better spatial characterization of fine-scale processes.
Karl Lapo, Anita Freundorfer, Lena Pfister, Johann Schneider, John Selker, and Christoph Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1563–1573,Short summary
Most observations of the atmosphere are
point observations, which only measure a small area around the sensor. This limitation creates problems for a number of disciplines, especially those that focus on how the surface and atmosphere exchange heat, mass, and momentum. We used distributed temperature sensing with fiber optics to demonstrate a key breakthrough in observing wind direction in a distributed way, i.e., not at a point, using small structures attached to the fiber-optic cables.
Elizabeth R. Jachens, David E. Rupp, Clément Roques, and John S. Selker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1159–1170,Short summary
Recession analysis uses the receding streamflow following precipitation events to estimate watershed-average properties. Two methods for recession analysis use recession events individually or all events collectively. Using synthetic case studies, this paper shows that analyzing recessions collectively produces flawed interpretations. Moving forward, recession analysis using individual recessions should be used to describe the average and variability of watershed behavior.
Maoya Bassiouni, Chad W. Higgins, Christopher J. Still, and Stephen P. Good
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3229–3243,
Jason Kelley and Chad Higgins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2151–2158,Short summary
Measuring fluxes of energy and trace gases using the surface renewal (SR) method can be economical and robust, but it requires computationally intensive calculations. Several new algorithms were written to perform the required calculations more efficiently and rapidly, and were tested with field data and computationally rigorous SR methods. These efficient algorithms facilitate expanded use of SR in atmospheric experiments, for applied monitoring, and in novel field implementations.
Stephen A. Drake, John S. Selker, and Chad W. Higgins
The Cryosphere, 11, 2075–2087,Short summary
Reaction rates of radiatively and chemically active trace species are influenced by the mobility of air contained within the snowpack. By measuring wind speed and the evolution of a tracer gas with in situ sensors over a 1 m horizontal grid, we found that inhomogeneities in a single snow layer enhanced air movement unevenly as wind speed increased. This result suggests small-scale variability in reaction rates that increases with wind speed and variability in snow permeability.
Stephen A. Drake, John S. Selker, and Chad W. Higgins
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 199–207,Short summary
Intrinsic permeability of snow is an important parameter that regulates snow–atmosphere exchange. Current permeability measurements require specialized equipment for acquisition in the field and have increased variability with increasing snow heterogeneity. To facilitate a field-based, volume-averaged measure of permeability, we designed and assembled an acoustic permeameter. When using reticulated foam samples of known permeability, the mean relative error from known values was less than 20 %.
Koen Hilgersom, Tim van Emmerik, Anna Solcerova, Wouter Berghuijs, John Selker, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 151–162,Short summary
Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing allows one to measure temperature patterns along a fibre optic cable with resolutions down to 25 cm. In geosciences, we sometimes wrap the cable to a coil to measure temperature at even smaller scales. We show that coils with narrow bends affect the measured temperatures. This also holds for the object to which the coil is attached, when heated by solar radiation. We therefore recommend the necessity to carefully design such distributed temperature probes.
T. Read, V. F. Bense, R. Hochreutener, O. Bour, T. Le Borgne, N. Lavenant, and J. S. Selker
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 197–202,Short summary
The monitoring and measurement of water flow in groundwater wells allows us to understand how aquifers transmit water. In this paper we develop a simple method, which we call T-POT, that allows flows to be estimated by tracking the movement of a small parcel of warmed water. The parcel is tracked using fibre optic temperature sensing - a technology that allows detailed measurements of temperature, and therefore flow using the T-POT method, to be made in the well.
Z. Liu and C. W. Higgins
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 65–73,Short summary
This paper discussed the effect of temperature on the accuracy of submersible strain gauge pressure transducers. The results show that rapid change of temperature introduces errors in the water level reading while the absolute temperature is also related to the sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Performance tests are necessary before field deployment to ensure the data quality.
T. O'Donnell Meininger and J. S. Selker
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 19–22,
Related subject area
Ground-based instrumentsMeasurements of natural airflow within a Stevenson screen and its influence on air temperature and humidity recordsThe soil heat flux sensor functioning checks, imbalances' origins, and forgotten energiesWind speed influences corrected Autocalibrated Soil Evapo-respiration Chamber (ASERC) evaporation measuresAssessing the feasibility of a directional cosmic-ray neutron sensing sensor for estimating soil moistureAccounting for meteorological effects in the detector of the charged component of cosmic raysObservation of the rock slope thermal regime, coupled with crackmeter stability monitoring: initial results from three different sites in Czechia (central Europe)The impact and resolution of the GPS week number rollover of April 2019 on autonomous geophysical instrument platformsInternet-of-things-based four-dimensional high-density electrical instrument for geophysical prospectingDesign and implementation of the detection software of a wireless microseismic acquisition station based on the Android platformFirst evaluation of an absolute quantum gravimeter (AQG#B01) for future field experimentsA new borehole electromagnetic receiver developed for controlled-source electromagnetic methodsDaytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth implementation in CÆLISA geophone-based and low-cost data acquisition and analysis system designed for microtremor measurementsA monitoring system for spatiotemporal electrical self-potential measurements in cryospheric environmentsEvaluating the suitability of the consumer low-cost Parrot Flower Power soil moisture sensor for scientific environmental applicationsDevelopment of a new distributed hybrid seismic and electrical data acquisition station based on system-on-a-programmable-chip technologyDevelopment of a distributed hybrid seismic–electrical data acquisition system based on the Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) technologyA low-cost autonomous rover for polar scienceShallow geophysical techniques to investigate the groundwater table at the Great Pyramids of Giza, EgyptApsu: a wireless multichannel receiver system for surface nuclear magnetic resonance groundwater investigationsDevelopment of high-precision distributed wireless microseismic acquisition stationsLinks between annual surface temperature variation and land cover heterogeneity for a boreal forest as characterized by continuous, fibre-optic DTS monitoringThe development and test research of a multichannel synchronous transient electromagnetic receiverEvaluating four gap-filling methods for eddy covariance measurements of evapotranspiration over hilly crop fieldsTri-axial square Helmholtz coil system at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory: upgraded to a magnetic sensor calibration facilityIntercomparison of cosmic-ray neutron sensors and water balance monitoring in an urban environmentDevelopment of a full-waveform voltage and current recording device for multichannel transient electromagnetic transmittersMaking better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessmentFog-based automatic true north detection for absolute magnetic declination measurementAutomated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF) applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzerU.S. Geological Survey experience with the residual absolutes methodThe magnetic observatory on Tatuoca, Belém, Brazil: history and recent developmentsSeveral years of experience with automatic DI-flux systems: theory, validation and resultsIn situ vector calibration of magnetic observatoriesA low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stationsMethod for processing XCP data with improved accuracyAnalysis of the technical biases of meteor video cameras used in the CILBO systemVideo cascade accumulation of the total solar eclipse on Svalbard 2015Vehicular-networking- and road-weather-related research in SodankyläAuroral meridian scanning photometer calibration using JupiterA coincidence detection system based on real-time softwareSeismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the futureData flow of spectral UV measurements at Sodankylä and JokioinenSoil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layersThe Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluationA new high-precision and low-power GNSS receiver for long-term installations in remote areasA compact receiver system for simultaneous measurements of mesospheric CO and O3Development of the very long-range cosmic-ray muon radiographic imaging technique to explore the internal structure of an erupting volcano, Shinmoe-dake, JapanSnowstorm at the geomagnetic observatoryAuroral all-sky camera calibration
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 263–277,Short summary
Most measurements of air temperature and humidity originate from Stevenson-type thermometer screens, which can produce erroneous measurements in light winds owing to insufficient ventilation of the in-screen sensors. A field experiment to measure airflow within a Stevenson screen found mean airflow to be only 0.2 m s−1, well below the 1 m s−1 minimum normally assumed, and only 7 % of 10 m mean wind speeds. Implications for air temperature and humidity measurement uncertainties are discussed.
Bartosz M. Zawilski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 223–234,Short summary
Surface energy balance (SEB) closure check and important environmental variable monitoring require soil heat flux measurement. On the one hand every experimental technique has its possible errors and needs to be checked and corrected. On the other hand, SEB equation should include all sensed energy sources and sinks.
Bartosz M. Zawilski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 163–182,Short summary
Soil evaporation is one of the most important water vapor sources on the Earth with multiple and severe consequences; however, there is a relative lack of instruments to measure it. This study describes a simple apparatus making the soil evaporation measurement accessible. The soil evaporation complexity is overcome by measuring the evaporation dynamic under different measurement conditions. A relatively simple measurement correction is then performed depending on the wind speed.
Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Markus Köhli, Christian Budach, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 75–92,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a non-invasive tool for measuring hydrogen pools like soil moisture, snow, or vegetation. This study presents a directional shielding approach, aiming to measure in specific directions only. The results show that non-directional neutron transport blurs the signal of the targeted direction. For typical instruments, this does not allow acceptable precision at a daily time resolution. However, the mere statistical distinction of two rates is feasible.
Maxim Philippov, Vladimir Makhmutov, Galina Bazilevskaya, Fedor Zagumennov, Vladimir Fomenko, Yuri Stozhkov, and Andrey Orlov
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 219–226,Short summary
This paper presents a brief description of the ground-based installation for the study of cosmic rays
CARPET. Today there is a network of such installations located in different parts of the world. For ground-based installations, meteorological effects must be considered as they affect the data. This paper shows a technique for eliminating barometric and temperature dependences based on data for 2019–2020.
Ondřej Racek, Jan Blahůt, and Filip Hartvich
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 203–218,Short summary
This paper is dedicated to description of universal, easy-to-modify, and affordable rock slope monitoring system. Using such a system, we are able to monitor environmental variables, the rock mass 3 m subsurface zone temperature profile, and spatiotemporal joint dynamics. We observe differences between three monitored sites. To further data analyses, longer time series are needed. The data will be further used for trend analyses and thermomechanical modelling.
Shane Coyle, C. Robert Clauer, Michael D. Hartinger, Zhonghua Xu, and Yuxiang Peng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 161–168,Short summary
Global satellite navigation systems are commonly used for timing and synchronization of instrument platforms. These system clocks periodically
roll overfrom limitations in discrete counter math. Due to the rarity of these events (19.6 years for GPS), special consideration must be given to designing instruments intended for use in hard-to-reach locations like the Antarctic Plateau. A few
best practicesare presented to prevent total system failure from unexpected subsystem faults.
Keyu Zhou, Qisheng Zhang, Yongdong Liu, Zhen Wu, Zucan Lin, Bentian Zhao, Xingyuan Jiang, and Pengyu Li
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 141–151,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a new multifunctional four-dimensional high-density electrical instrument based on remote wireless communication technology, for use in shallow geophysical prospecting. We carried out a lot of tests. Our design successfully addresses a number of shortcomings of such instruments currently available on the market, including bulkiness, weight, limitations in data acquisition accuracy, and difficulty of connecting to the Internet for remote monitoring.
Qimao Zhang, Shuaiqing Qiao, Qisheng Zhang, and Shiyang Liu
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 91–100,Short summary
In order to meet the needs of geophysical exploration, the requirements of intelligent and convenient exploration instruments are realized. From the perspective of software, this research combines today's wireless transmission technology to integrate applications into mobile phones to realize remote control of field operations. It provides a new idea for geophysical exploration.
Anne-Karin Cooke, Cédric Champollion, and Nicolas Le Moigne
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 65–79,Short summary
Gravimetry studies the variations of the Earth’s gravity field which can be linked to mass changes studied in various disciplines of the Earth sciences. The gravitational attraction of the Earth is measured with gravimeters. Quantum gravimeters allow for continuous, high-frequency absolute gravity monitoring while remaining user-friendly and transportable. We assess the capacity of the AQG#B01, developed by Muquans, as a field gravimeter for hydrogeophysical applications.
Sixuan Song, Ming Deng, Kai Chen, Muer A, and Sheng Jin
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 55–64,Short summary
Current borehole receivers only measure a single parameter of the magnetic field component, which does not meet the special requirements of controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods. This study proposes a borehole electromagnetic receiver that realizes synchronous acquisition of the vertical electric field component and three-axis orthogonal magnetic field components. Results of the experiments show that our system functioned adequately and that high-quality CSEM signals were obtained.
Ramiro González, Carlos Toledano, Roberto Román, David Fuertes, Alberto Berjón, David Mateos, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Cristian Velasco-Merino, Juan Carlos Antuña-Sánchez, Abel Calle, Victoria E. Cachorro, and Ángel M. de Frutos
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 417–433,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a parameter widely used in remote sensing for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles. AERONET was created by NASA for aerosol monitoring as well as satellite and model validation. The University of Valladolid (UVa) has managed an AERONET calibration center since 2006. The CÆLIS software tool, developed by UVa, was created to manage the data generated by AERONET photometers. The AOD algorithm in CÆLIS is developed and validated in this work.
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 365–373,Short summary
In this paper, a low-cost, computer-aided, and geophone-based system designed to record, monitor, and analyze three-component microtremor data is presented. This system has several features such as a 200 Hz sampling frequency, text data format, and data analysis tools. The developed software undertakes many tasks such as communication between the external hardware and computer, transferring, monitoring, and recording the seismic data to a computer, and interpretation of the recorded data.
Maximilian Weigand, Florian M. Wagner, Jonas K. Limbrock, Christin Hilbich, Christian Hauck, and Andreas Kemna
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 317–336,Short summary
In times of global warming, permafrost is starting to degrade at alarming rates, requiring new and improved characterization approaches. We describe the design and test installation, as well as detailed data quality assessment, of a monitoring system used to capture natural electrical potentials in the subsurface. These self-potential signals are of great interest for the noninvasive investigation of water flow in the non-frozen or partially frozen subsurface.
Angelika Xaver, Luca Zappa, Gerhard Rab, Isabella Pfeil, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Drew Hemment, and Wouter Arnoud Dorigo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 117–139,Short summary
Soil moisture plays a key role in the hydrological cycle and the climate system. Although soil moisture can be observed by the means of satellites, ground observations are still crucial for evaluating and improving these satellite products. In this study, we investigate the performance of a consumer low-cost soil moisture sensor in the lab and in the field. We demonstrate that this sensor can be used for scientific applications, for example to create a dataset valuable for satellite validation.
Qisheng Zhang, Wenhao Li, Feng Guo, Zhenzhong Yuan, Shuaiqing Qiao, and Qimao Zhang
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 241–249,Short summary
Complex and harsh exploration environments have put forward higher requirements for traditional geophysical exploration methods and instruments. In this study, a new distributed seismic and electrical hybrid acquisition station is developed and it can achieve high-precision hybrid acquisition of seismic and electrical data. The synchronization precision of the acquisition station is better than 200 ns and the maximum low-power data transmission speed is 16 Mbps along a 55 m cable.
Wenhao Li, Qisheng Zhang, Qimao Zhang, Feng Guo, Shuaiqing Qiao, Shiyang Liu, Yueyun Luo, Yuefeng Niu, and Xing Heng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 177–186,Short summary
The nonuniqueness of geophysical inversions, which is based on a single geophysical method, is a long–standing problem in geophysical exploration. This paper developed a distributed, multi–channel, high–precision data acquisition system. It can achieve high–precision hybrid acquisition of seismic–electrical data and monitor the real–time quality of data acquisition processes using NB–IoT technology. The equivalent input noise is 0.5 μV and the synchronization accuracy is within 200 ns.
Andrew O. Hoffman, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Knut Christianson, and Christine Hvidberg
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 149–159,Short summary
We present the design considerations and deployment of an autonomous modular terrestrial rover for ice-sheet exploration that is inexpensive, easy to construct, and allows for instrumentation customization. The rover proved capable of driving over 20 km on a single charge with a drawbar pull of 250 N, which is sufficient to tow commercial ground-penetrating radars. Due to its low cost, low power requirements, and simple modular design, mass deployments of this rover design are practicable.
Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin, Khalid S. Essa, Mohamed A. S. Youssef, Hakan Karsli, Zein E. Diab, and Nilgun Sayil
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 29–43,Short summary
Integrated geophysical techniques (ERT, SSR, and GPR) along the conducted profiles at the Great Pyramids of Giza have been successfully used to investigate the groundwater table and support hazard mitigation. The groundwater table elevation is 15 m under the Great Sphinx, which is safe, and at the Nazlet El-Samman it is 16–17 m.
Lichao Liu, Denys Grombacher, Esben Auken, and Jakob Juul Larsen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 1–11,Short summary
This paper introcudes the design workflow and test approaches of a surface-NMR receiver. But the method and technqiues, for instance, signal loop, acqusition board, GPS synchronization, and Wi-Fi network, could also be employed in other geophysical instruments.
Shuaiqing Qiao, Hongmei Duan, Qisheng Zhang, Qimao Zhang, Shuhan Li, Shenghui Liu, Shiyang Liu, Yongqing Wang, Shichu Yan, Wenhao Li, and Feng Guo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 253–263,Short summary
In this study, a high-precision distributed wireless microseismic acquisition system has been designed for oil and gas exploration. The system design, which was based on the ADS1274 chip manufactured by TI, made full use of the four channels of the chip to collect vibration signals in three directions and one electrical signal, respectively. Furthermore, the acquisition system used GPS and WIFI technologies to achieve distributed wireless acquisition.
Kazuyuki Saito, Go Iwahana, Hiroki Ikawa, Hirohiko Nagano, and Robert C. Busey
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 223–234,Short summary
A DTS system, using fibre-optic cables as a temperature sensor, measured surface and subsurface temperatures at a boreal forest underlain by permafrost in the interior of Alaska for 2 years every 30 min at 0.5-metre intervals along 2.7 km to monitor the daily and seasonal temperature changes, whose temperature ranges between −40 ºC in winter and 30 ºC in summer. This instrumentation illustrated characteristics of temperature variations and snow pack dynamics under different land cover types.
Fanqiang Lin, Xuben Wang, Kecheng Chen, Depan Hu, Song Gao, Xue Zou, and Cai Zeng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 209–221,Short summary
The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a receiver system for the synchronous acquisition of multiple electromagnetic signals in transient electromagnetic prospecting to achieve multiparameter and multichannel synchronous reception. The reliability, practicability, and data validity of the receiver were verified by different kinds of testing. It can be used for the reception of pseudorandom signals and distributed 3-D data, which can improve geophysical exploration efficiency.
Nissaf Boudhina, Rim Zitouna-Chebbi, Insaf Mekki, Frédéric Jacob, Nétij Ben Mechlia, Moncef Masmoudi, and Laurent Prévot
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 151–167,Short summary
To provide reliable time series of evapotranspiration, we evaluated the performances of four different gap-filling methods when tailored to conditions of hilly crop fields. The tailoring consisted of splitting the time series beforehand on the basis of upslope and downslope winds. The obtained accuracies on evapotranspiration after gap filling were comparable to those previously reported over flat and mountainous terrains, and they were better with the most widely used gap-filling method.
Prasanna Mahavarkar, Jacob John, Vijay Dhapre, Varun Dongre, and Sachin Labde
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 143–149,Short summary
The authors have successfully recommissioned an unused tri-axial Helmholtz coil system. The system now serves as a national facility for calibrating magnetometers.
Martin Schrön, Steffen Zacharias, Gary Womack, Markus Köhli, Darin Desilets, Sascha E. Oswald, Jan Bumberger, Hannes Mollenhauer, Simon Kögler, Paul Remmler, Mandy Kasner, Astrid Denk, and Peter Dietrich
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 83–99,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a unique technology to monitor water storages in complex environments, non-invasively, continuously, autonomuously, and representatively in large areas. However, neutron detector signals are not comparable per se: there is statistical noise, technical differences, and locational effects. We found out what it takes to make CRNS consistent in time and space to ensure reliable data quality. We further propose a method to correct for sealed areas in the footrint.
Xinyue Zhang, Qisheng Zhang, Meng Wang, Qiang Kong, Shengquan Zhang, Ruihao He, Shenghui Liu, Shuhan Li, and Zhenzhong Yuan
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 495–503,Short summary
We believe that our study full-waveform voltage and current recording device for MTEM transmitters makes a significant contribution to the literature because this full-waveform recording device can be used to monitor the high-power, full-waveform voltages and currents of MTEM transmitters. It has high precision, finer edge details, low noise, and other advantages. Hence, it can be used for real-time recording and transmission to the receiver for coherent demodulation.
Peter W. Thorne, Fabio Madonna, Joerg Schulz, Tim Oakley, Bruce Ingleby, Marco Rosoldi, Emanuele Tramutola, Antti Arola, Matthias Buschmann, Anna C. Mikalsen, Richard Davy, Corinne Voces, Karin Kreher, Martine De Maziere, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 453–472,Short summary
The term system-of-systems with respect to observational capabilities is frequently used, but what does it mean and how can it be assessed? Here, we define one possible interpretation of a system-of-systems architecture that is based upon demonstrable aspects of observing capabilities. We develop a set of assessment strands and then apply these to a set of atmospheric observational networks to decide which observations may be suitable for characterising satellite platforms in future work.
Alexandre Gonsette, Jean Rasson, Stephan Bracke, Antoine Poncelet, Olivier Hendrickx, and François Humbled
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 439–446,Short summary
Absolute magnetic measurements require the vertical and the geographic north as reference directions. We present here a novel system able to measure the direction of the magnetic field and of the vertical and true north. A design of a north seeker is proposed that takes into account sensor bias as well as misalignment errors. Different methods are derived from this model and measurement results are presented. A measurement test at high latitude is also shown.
Wilhelm Nikonow and Dieter Rammlmair
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 429–437,Short summary
This work describes a new approach to use fast X-ray fluorescence mapping as a tool for automated mineralogy applied on thin sections of plutonic rocks. Using a supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral maps are obtained for modal mineralogy and image analysis. The results are compared to a conventional method for automated mineralogy, which is scanning electron microscopy with mineral liberation analyzer, showing a good overall accuracy of 76 %.
E. William Worthington and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 419–427,Short summary
We have compared two methods of performing Absolute observations of the Earth's magnetic field. The newer, Residual method was evaluated for use at USGS geomagnetic observatories and compared with measurements using the traditional Null method. A mathematical outline of the Residual method is presented, including more precise conversions of the Declination angles to nanoTeslas (nT). Results show that the Residual method is better than the Null method, especially at high latitude.
Achim Morschhauser, Gabriel Brando Soares, Jürgen Haseloff, Oliver Bronkalla, José Protásio, Katia Pinheiro, and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 367–376,Short summary
We report on the history and recent developments of the Tatuoca magnetic observatory in Brazil. This observatory is located close to the geomagnetic equator and within a region of strong main field dynamics. Starting from 2015, we have installed new instrumentation and a new datalogger system. In the paper, we also comment on the challenges of doing absolute measurements at the geomagnetic equator.
Antoine Poncelet, Alexandre Gonsette, and Jean Rasson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 353–360,Short summary
In this paper, we give some background on calibration and verification of our automatic DI-flux instrument and then compare the automatic absolute magnetic measurements with the human-made and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of automatic measurements.
Alexandre Gonsette, Jean Rasson, and François Humbled
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 361–366,Short summary
We present a novel method for calibrating magnetic observatories. We show how magnetometer baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a method based on high-frequency automatic absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting raw data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where covered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.
Achim Morschhauser, Jürgen Haseloff, Oliver Bronkalla, Carsten Müller-Brettschneider, and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 345–352,Short summary
A modern geomagnetic observatory is expected to record geomagnetic data with high stability, high resolution, and high reliability. Also, geomagnetic observatories may be located in remote areas, requiring low power consumption and simple maintenance. Here, we present a new data logger system that was designed to meet these criteria. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and includes a modular C++ software package which can be adapted to specific observatory setups.
Xinyue Zhang, Qisheng Zhang, Xiao Zhao, Qimao Zhang, Shenghui Liu, Shuhan Li, and Zhenzhong Yuan
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 209–215,Short summary
In this study, we propose a more accurate method for calculating the current velocity from the nanovolt-scale current-induced electric field as measured using an expendable current profiler (XCP). In order to confirm the accuracy of the proposed data processing method, a sea test was performed, wherein ocean current/electric field data were collected from the sea surface to a depth of 1000 m using an XCP.
Thomas Albin, Detlef Koschny, Sirko Molau, Ralf Srama, and Björn Poppe
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 125–140,Short summary
The Canary Islands Long-Baseline Observatory (CILBO) is a stereoscopic camera setup on the Canary Islands Tenerife and La Palma. Both cameras observe the same volume in the sky to determine high-precision orbits of entering meteoroids. Both cameras are identical; however they show different brightness or velocity distributions of the observed meteors. This work analyses different observational bias effects to determine and understand, e.g. camera pointing or observation time-dependent effects.
Fred Sigernes, Pål Gunnar Ellingsen, Noora Partamies, Mikko Syrjäsuo, Pål Brekke, Silje Eriksen Holmen, Arne Danielsen, Bernt Olsen, Xiangcai Chen, Margit Dyrland, Lisa Baddeley, Dag Arne Lorentzen, Marcus Aleksander Krogtoft, Torstein Dragland, Hans Mortensson, Lisbeth Smistad, Craig J. Heinselman, and Shadia Habbal
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 9–14,Short summary
The total solar eclipse event on Svalbard on 20 March 2015 gave us a unique opportunity to image the upper parts of the Sun's atmosphere. A novel image accumulation filter technique is presented that is capable of distinguishing features such as loops, spicules, plumes, and prominences from intense and blurry video recordings of the chromosphere.
Timo Sukuvaara, Kari Mäenpää, and Riika Ylitalo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 513–520,Short summary
FMI's combined road weather station (RWS) and roadside unit (RSU) in Sodankylä is a unique research platform combining very advanced road weather measurements with a versatile collection of the most common wireless communication methodologies used in a vehicular environment. Together with harsh Arctic road weather conditions it represents an incomparable development environment and pilot RWS station within the field of intelligent transport systems and vehicular networking.
Brian J. Jackel, Craig Unick, Fokke Creutzberg, Greg Baker, Eric Davis, Eric F. Donovan, Martin Connors, Cody Wilson, Jarrett Little, M. Greffen, and Neil McGuffin
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 493–512,Short summary
In order to compare auroral observations, it is necessary to ensure that all instruments are properly calibrated. This can be difficult to achieve with different instruments operated for extended intervals at remote field sites under harsh conditions. Astronomical sources can be used for independent absolute calibration procedures. Under ideal conditions Jupiter is an excellent source, as it can provide more light than the brightest star. We use Jupiter to calibrate an auroral MSP network.
Sindulfo Ayuso, Juan José Blanco, José Medina, Raúl Gómez-Herrero, Oscar García-Población, and Ignacio García Tejedor
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 437–449,Short summary
A new software coincidence method is shown which can be used to replace conventional coincidence detection with the same effectiveness. Our easy-to-build trial prototype has cost EUR 150 and replaces at least three conventional coincidence modules (over EUR 6000). This has allowed us to carry out experiments that we could not before because of the lack of resources. It detects coincidence, stores timestamp data and transfers them to a PC, allowing easier adjustments and simpler interconnections.
Elena Kozlovskaya, Janne Narkilahti, Jouni Nevalainen, Riitta Hurskainen, and Hanna Silvennoinen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 365–382,Short summary
The paper describes the history and the present state of instrumental seismic observations at the University of Oulu and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory in northern Finland that started in 1950s. This includes both seismic observations at permanent seismic stations and temporary seismic experiments by portable seismic equipment. We describe the instrumentation and major research topics of seismic group at the SGO and discuss the plans for their future development.
Jakke Sakari Mäkelä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tapani Koskela, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Vladimir Savastiouk, Hanne Suokanerva, Jussi Kaurola, Antti Arola, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Outi Meinander, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Anu Heikkilä
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 193–203,Short summary
We describe the steps that are used at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to process spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation measurements made with its three Brewer spectrophotometers, located in Sodankylä (67° N) and Jokioinen (61° N). Multiple corrections are made to the data in near-real time and quality control is also performed automatically. Several data products are produced, including the near-real-time UV index and various daily dosages, and submitted to databases.
Simone Bircher, Mie Andreasen, Johanna Vuollet, Juho Vehviläinen, Kimmo Rautiainen, François Jonard, Lutz Weihermüller, Elena Zakharova, Jean-Pierre Wigneron, and Yann H. Kerr
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 109–125,Short summary
At the Finnish Meteorological Institute in Sodankylä and the Danish Center for Hydrology, calibration functions for organic surface layers were derived for two in situ soil moisture sensors to be used in the validation of coarse-resolution soil moisture from satellites and land surface models. There was no clear difference in the data from a variety of humus types, strengthening confidence that these calibrations are applicable over a wide range of conditions as encountered in the large areas.
Jaakko Ikonen, Juho Vehviläinen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Tuomo Smolander, Juha Lemmetyinen, Simone Bircher, and Jouni Pulliainen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 95–108,Short summary
A comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. We present the soil moisture observation network and the results of comparisons of top layer soil moisture between 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI product soil moisture retrievals.
David H. Jones, Carl Robinson, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 65–73,Short summary
Long-term records from high-precision GPS receivers are essential for studying geophysical movement. Existing, commercially available, precision GPS receivers are not intended for long-term, autonomous deployment. We have designed a GPS receiver that is better suited for this application. In this paper, we discuss the receiver design and compare its performance with that of some of the commercially available receivers.
P. Forkman, O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, B. Billade, V. Vassilev, and V. M. Shulga
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 27–44,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is the only ground-based technique that can provide vertical profiles of gases in the middle atmosphere both day and night, and even during cloudy conditions. Today these measurements are performed at relatively few sites, more simple and reliable instruments are required to make the measurement technique more widely spread. In this study a compact double-sideband frequency-switched radiometer system for simultaneous observations of mesospheric CO and O3 is presented.
T. Kusagaya and H. K. M. Tanaka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 215–226,
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 4, 155–159,Short summary
The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory is situated on Gora above Ajdovščina, a highland karst plateau, in the southwestern part of Slovenia, and operates in exceptional geological and meteorological conditions due to its location. The measurements intended to determine the value of influences of weather fronts on the local magnetic field were carried out in January 2013. This article presents the results of these measurements, showing how the snowstorm induced changes in earth's magnetic field.
F. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørklund, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 3, 241–245,Short summary
A two-step procedure to calibrate the spectral sensitivity of auroral all-sky (fish-eye) cameras is outlined. First, center pixel response is obtained by the use of a Lambertian surface and a standard tungsten lamp. Second, all-sky flat-field correction is carried out with an integrating sphere.
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We present a new instrument for measuring surface runoff rates ranging from very low (~0.05L min-1) to high (300L min-1, with much higher rates possible depending on the device configuration). The device is economical, simple, rugged, accurate and requires little maintenance (the system is self-emptying and contains no moving parts). We have successfully used this instrument in long-term monitoring studies and expect that it will appeal to other scientists studying runoff processes.
We present a new instrument for measuring surface runoff rates ranging from very low (~0.05L...