Articles | Volume 4, issue 2
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Development of the very long-range cosmic-ray muon radiographic imaging technique to explore the internal structure of an erupting volcano, Shinmoe-dake, Japan
Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
H. K. M. Tanaka
Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
No articles found.
Hiroyuki K. M. Tanaka and Michinori Ohshiro
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 427–435,Short summary
Application of elementary particle physics to the measurements of rock overburden density structures that might be directly applicable to natural resources and undiscovered cave explorations, and even to searching for hidden chambers in historic architectural structures.
Related subject area
Ground-based instrumentsCalculation of soil water content using dielectric-permittivity-based sensors – benefits of soil-specific calibrationThe land–atmosphere feedback observatory: a new observational approach for characterizing land–atmosphere feedbackDesign and construction of an automated and programmable resistivity meter for shallow subsurface investigationFeasibility of irrigation monitoring with cosmic-ray neutron sensorsDesign and operation of a long-term monitoring system for spectral electrical impedance tomography (sEIT)Measurements of natural airflow within a Stevenson screen and its influence on air temperature and humidity recordsThe soil heat flux sensor functioning checks, imbalances' origins, and forgotten energiesWind speed influences corrected Autocalibrated Soil Evapo-respiration Chamber (ASERC) evaporation measuresAssessing the feasibility of a directional cosmic-ray neutron sensing sensor for estimating soil moistureAccounting for meteorological effects in the detector of the charged component of cosmic raysObservation of the rock slope thermal regime, coupled with crackmeter stability monitoring: initial results from three different sites in Czechia (central Europe)The impact and resolution of the GPS week number rollover of April 2019 on autonomous geophysical instrument platformsInternet-of-things-based four-dimensional high-density electrical instrument for geophysical prospectingDesign and implementation of the detection software of a wireless microseismic acquisition station based on the Android platformFirst evaluation of an absolute quantum gravimeter (AQG#B01) for future field experimentsA new borehole electromagnetic receiver developed for controlled-source electromagnetic methodsDaytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth implementation in CÆLISA geophone-based and low-cost data acquisition and analysis system designed for microtremor measurementsA monitoring system for spatiotemporal electrical self-potential measurements in cryospheric environmentsEvaluating the suitability of the consumer low-cost Parrot Flower Power soil moisture sensor for scientific environmental applicationsDevelopment of a new distributed hybrid seismic and electrical data acquisition station based on system-on-a-programmable-chip technologyDevelopment of a distributed hybrid seismic–electrical data acquisition system based on the Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) technologyA low-cost autonomous rover for polar scienceShallow geophysical techniques to investigate the groundwater table at the Great Pyramids of Giza, EgyptApsu: a wireless multichannel receiver system for surface nuclear magnetic resonance groundwater investigationsDevelopment of high-precision distributed wireless microseismic acquisition stationsLinks between annual surface temperature variation and land cover heterogeneity for a boreal forest as characterized by continuous, fibre-optic DTS monitoringThe development and test research of a multichannel synchronous transient electromagnetic receiverEvaluating four gap-filling methods for eddy covariance measurements of evapotranspiration over hilly crop fieldsTri-axial square Helmholtz coil system at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory: upgraded to a magnetic sensor calibration facilityIntercomparison of cosmic-ray neutron sensors and water balance monitoring in an urban environmentDevelopment of a full-waveform voltage and current recording device for multichannel transient electromagnetic transmittersMaking better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessmentFog-based automatic true north detection for absolute magnetic declination measurementAutomated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF) applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzerU.S. Geological Survey experience with the residual absolutes methodThe magnetic observatory on Tatuoca, Belém, Brazil: history and recent developmentsSeveral years of experience with automatic DI-flux systems: theory, validation and resultsIn situ vector calibration of magnetic observatoriesA low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stationsMethod for processing XCP data with improved accuracyAnalysis of the technical biases of meteor video cameras used in the CILBO systemVideo cascade accumulation of the total solar eclipse on Svalbard 2015Vehicular-networking- and road-weather-related research in SodankyläAuroral meridian scanning photometer calibration using JupiterA coincidence detection system based on real-time softwareSeismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the futureData flow of spectral UV measurements at Sodankylä and JokioinenSoil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layersThe Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation
Bartosz M. Zawilski, Franck Granouillac, Nicole Claverie, Baptiste Lemaire, Aurore Brut, and Tiphaine Tallec
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 12, 45–56,Short summary
In most cases, the soil water content (SWC) measurement is carried out using commercially available dielectric-permittivity-based probes such as time domain reflectometers or frequency domain reflectometers (FDR). However, these probes use transfer functions which may be inadequate in the soil concerned. Raw SWC measurement in clayey soil shows an important relative error. A simple protocol is presented, allowing for the recovery of an acceptable accuracy of the FDR SWC measurements.
Florian Späth, Verena Rajtschan, Tobias K. D. Weber, Shehan Morandage, Diego Lange, Syed Saqlain Abbas, Andreas Behrendt, Joachim Ingwersen, Thilo Streck, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 12, 25–44,Short summary
Important topics in land–atmosphere feedback research are water and energy balances and heterogeneities of fluxes at the land surface and in the atmosphere. To target these questions, the Land–Atmosphere Feedback Observatory (LAFO) has been installed in Germany. The instrumentation allows for comprehensive measurements from the bedrock to the troposphere. The LAFO observation strategy aims for simultaneous measurements in all three compartments: atmosphere, soil and land surface, and vegetation.
Antenor Oliveira Cruz Júnior, Cosme Ferreira da Ponte-Neto, and André Wiermann
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 12, 15–23,Short summary
This project aims to demonstrate the viability of the development of a concept prototype that has, as a differential, free software and hardware used in its development and operation. It thus has unique characteristics compared with commercially available equipment for signal detection, providing strong rejection of spurious electrical noise, typical of urban areas. This project is important academic contribution to open-source instrumental research.
Cosimo Brogi, Heye Reemt Bogena, Markus Köhli, Johan Alexander Huisman, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Olga Dombrowski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 451–469,Short summary
Accurate monitoring of water in soil can improve irrigation efficiency, which is important considering climate change and the growing world population. Cosmic-ray neutrons sensors (CRNSs) are a promising tool in irrigation monitoring due to a larger sensed area and to lower maintenance than other ground-based sensors. Here, we analyse the feasibility of irrigation monitoring with CRNSs and the impact of the irrigated field dimensions, of the variations of water in soil, and of instrument design.
Maximilian Weigand, Egon Zimmermann, Valentin Michels, Johan Alexander Huisman, and Andreas Kemna
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 413–433,Short summary
The construction, operation and analysis of a spectral electrical impedance tomography (sEIT) field monitoring setup with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented. Electromagnetic induction errors are corrected, allowing the recovery of images of in-phase conductivity and electrical polarisation of up to 1 kHz.
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 263–277,Short summary
Most measurements of air temperature and humidity originate from Stevenson-type thermometer screens, which can produce erroneous measurements in light winds owing to insufficient ventilation of the in-screen sensors. A field experiment to measure airflow within a Stevenson screen found mean airflow to be only 0.2 m s−1, well below the 1 m s−1 minimum normally assumed, and only 7 % of 10 m mean wind speeds. Implications for air temperature and humidity measurement uncertainties are discussed.
Bartosz M. Zawilski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 223–234,Short summary
Surface energy balance (SEB) closure check and important environmental variable monitoring require soil heat flux measurement. On the one hand every experimental technique has its possible errors and needs to be checked and corrected. On the other hand, SEB equation should include all sensed energy sources and sinks.
Bartosz M. Zawilski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 163–182,Short summary
Soil evaporation is one of the most important water vapor sources on the Earth with multiple and severe consequences; however, there is a relative lack of instruments to measure it. This study describes a simple apparatus making the soil evaporation measurement accessible. The soil evaporation complexity is overcome by measuring the evaporation dynamic under different measurement conditions. A relatively simple measurement correction is then performed depending on the wind speed.
Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Markus Köhli, Christian Budach, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 75–92,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a non-invasive tool for measuring hydrogen pools like soil moisture, snow, or vegetation. This study presents a directional shielding approach, aiming to measure in specific directions only. The results show that non-directional neutron transport blurs the signal of the targeted direction. For typical instruments, this does not allow acceptable precision at a daily time resolution. However, the mere statistical distinction of two rates is feasible.
Maxim Philippov, Vladimir Makhmutov, Galina Bazilevskaya, Fedor Zagumennov, Vladimir Fomenko, Yuri Stozhkov, and Andrey Orlov
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 219–226,Short summary
This paper presents a brief description of the ground-based installation for the study of cosmic rays
CARPET. Today there is a network of such installations located in different parts of the world. For ground-based installations, meteorological effects must be considered as they affect the data. This paper shows a technique for eliminating barometric and temperature dependences based on data for 2019–2020.
Ondřej Racek, Jan Blahůt, and Filip Hartvich
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 203–218,Short summary
This paper is dedicated to description of universal, easy-to-modify, and affordable rock slope monitoring system. Using such a system, we are able to monitor environmental variables, the rock mass 3 m subsurface zone temperature profile, and spatiotemporal joint dynamics. We observe differences between three monitored sites. To further data analyses, longer time series are needed. The data will be further used for trend analyses and thermomechanical modelling.
Shane Coyle, C. Robert Clauer, Michael D. Hartinger, Zhonghua Xu, and Yuxiang Peng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 161–168,Short summary
Global satellite navigation systems are commonly used for timing and synchronization of instrument platforms. These system clocks periodically
roll overfrom limitations in discrete counter math. Due to the rarity of these events (19.6 years for GPS), special consideration must be given to designing instruments intended for use in hard-to-reach locations like the Antarctic Plateau. A few
best practicesare presented to prevent total system failure from unexpected subsystem faults.
Keyu Zhou, Qisheng Zhang, Yongdong Liu, Zhen Wu, Zucan Lin, Bentian Zhao, Xingyuan Jiang, and Pengyu Li
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 141–151,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a new multifunctional four-dimensional high-density electrical instrument based on remote wireless communication technology, for use in shallow geophysical prospecting. We carried out a lot of tests. Our design successfully addresses a number of shortcomings of such instruments currently available on the market, including bulkiness, weight, limitations in data acquisition accuracy, and difficulty of connecting to the Internet for remote monitoring.
Qimao Zhang, Shuaiqing Qiao, Qisheng Zhang, and Shiyang Liu
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 91–100,Short summary
In order to meet the needs of geophysical exploration, the requirements of intelligent and convenient exploration instruments are realized. From the perspective of software, this research combines today's wireless transmission technology to integrate applications into mobile phones to realize remote control of field operations. It provides a new idea for geophysical exploration.
Anne-Karin Cooke, Cédric Champollion, and Nicolas Le Moigne
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 65–79,Short summary
Gravimetry studies the variations of the Earth’s gravity field which can be linked to mass changes studied in various disciplines of the Earth sciences. The gravitational attraction of the Earth is measured with gravimeters. Quantum gravimeters allow for continuous, high-frequency absolute gravity monitoring while remaining user-friendly and transportable. We assess the capacity of the AQG#B01, developed by Muquans, as a field gravimeter for hydrogeophysical applications.
Sixuan Song, Ming Deng, Kai Chen, Muer A, and Sheng Jin
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 10, 55–64,Short summary
Current borehole receivers only measure a single parameter of the magnetic field component, which does not meet the special requirements of controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods. This study proposes a borehole electromagnetic receiver that realizes synchronous acquisition of the vertical electric field component and three-axis orthogonal magnetic field components. Results of the experiments show that our system functioned adequately and that high-quality CSEM signals were obtained.
Ramiro González, Carlos Toledano, Roberto Román, David Fuertes, Alberto Berjón, David Mateos, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Cristian Velasco-Merino, Juan Carlos Antuña-Sánchez, Abel Calle, Victoria E. Cachorro, and Ángel M. de Frutos
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 417–433,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a parameter widely used in remote sensing for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles. AERONET was created by NASA for aerosol monitoring as well as satellite and model validation. The University of Valladolid (UVa) has managed an AERONET calibration center since 2006. The CÆLIS software tool, developed by UVa, was created to manage the data generated by AERONET photometers. The AOD algorithm in CÆLIS is developed and validated in this work.
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 365–373,Short summary
In this paper, a low-cost, computer-aided, and geophone-based system designed to record, monitor, and analyze three-component microtremor data is presented. This system has several features such as a 200 Hz sampling frequency, text data format, and data analysis tools. The developed software undertakes many tasks such as communication between the external hardware and computer, transferring, monitoring, and recording the seismic data to a computer, and interpretation of the recorded data.
Maximilian Weigand, Florian M. Wagner, Jonas K. Limbrock, Christin Hilbich, Christian Hauck, and Andreas Kemna
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 317–336,Short summary
In times of global warming, permafrost is starting to degrade at alarming rates, requiring new and improved characterization approaches. We describe the design and test installation, as well as detailed data quality assessment, of a monitoring system used to capture natural electrical potentials in the subsurface. These self-potential signals are of great interest for the noninvasive investigation of water flow in the non-frozen or partially frozen subsurface.
Angelika Xaver, Luca Zappa, Gerhard Rab, Isabella Pfeil, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Drew Hemment, and Wouter Arnoud Dorigo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 117–139,Short summary
Soil moisture plays a key role in the hydrological cycle and the climate system. Although soil moisture can be observed by the means of satellites, ground observations are still crucial for evaluating and improving these satellite products. In this study, we investigate the performance of a consumer low-cost soil moisture sensor in the lab and in the field. We demonstrate that this sensor can be used for scientific applications, for example to create a dataset valuable for satellite validation.
Qisheng Zhang, Wenhao Li, Feng Guo, Zhenzhong Yuan, Shuaiqing Qiao, and Qimao Zhang
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 241–249,Short summary
Complex and harsh exploration environments have put forward higher requirements for traditional geophysical exploration methods and instruments. In this study, a new distributed seismic and electrical hybrid acquisition station is developed and it can achieve high-precision hybrid acquisition of seismic and electrical data. The synchronization precision of the acquisition station is better than 200 ns and the maximum low-power data transmission speed is 16 Mbps along a 55 m cable.
Wenhao Li, Qisheng Zhang, Qimao Zhang, Feng Guo, Shuaiqing Qiao, Shiyang Liu, Yueyun Luo, Yuefeng Niu, and Xing Heng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 177–186,Short summary
The nonuniqueness of geophysical inversions, which is based on a single geophysical method, is a long–standing problem in geophysical exploration. This paper developed a distributed, multi–channel, high–precision data acquisition system. It can achieve high–precision hybrid acquisition of seismic–electrical data and monitor the real–time quality of data acquisition processes using NB–IoT technology. The equivalent input noise is 0.5 μV and the synchronization accuracy is within 200 ns.
Andrew O. Hoffman, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Knut Christianson, and Christine Hvidberg
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 149–159,Short summary
We present the design considerations and deployment of an autonomous modular terrestrial rover for ice-sheet exploration that is inexpensive, easy to construct, and allows for instrumentation customization. The rover proved capable of driving over 20 km on a single charge with a drawbar pull of 250 N, which is sufficient to tow commercial ground-penetrating radars. Due to its low cost, low power requirements, and simple modular design, mass deployments of this rover design are practicable.
Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin, Khalid S. Essa, Mohamed A. S. Youssef, Hakan Karsli, Zein E. Diab, and Nilgun Sayil
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 29–43,Short summary
Integrated geophysical techniques (ERT, SSR, and GPR) along the conducted profiles at the Great Pyramids of Giza have been successfully used to investigate the groundwater table and support hazard mitigation. The groundwater table elevation is 15 m under the Great Sphinx, which is safe, and at the Nazlet El-Samman it is 16–17 m.
Lichao Liu, Denys Grombacher, Esben Auken, and Jakob Juul Larsen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 1–11,Short summary
This paper introcudes the design workflow and test approaches of a surface-NMR receiver. But the method and technqiues, for instance, signal loop, acqusition board, GPS synchronization, and Wi-Fi network, could also be employed in other geophysical instruments.
Shuaiqing Qiao, Hongmei Duan, Qisheng Zhang, Qimao Zhang, Shuhan Li, Shenghui Liu, Shiyang Liu, Yongqing Wang, Shichu Yan, Wenhao Li, and Feng Guo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 253–263,Short summary
In this study, a high-precision distributed wireless microseismic acquisition system has been designed for oil and gas exploration. The system design, which was based on the ADS1274 chip manufactured by TI, made full use of the four channels of the chip to collect vibration signals in three directions and one electrical signal, respectively. Furthermore, the acquisition system used GPS and WIFI technologies to achieve distributed wireless acquisition.
Kazuyuki Saito, Go Iwahana, Hiroki Ikawa, Hirohiko Nagano, and Robert C. Busey
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 223–234,Short summary
A DTS system, using fibre-optic cables as a temperature sensor, measured surface and subsurface temperatures at a boreal forest underlain by permafrost in the interior of Alaska for 2 years every 30 min at 0.5-metre intervals along 2.7 km to monitor the daily and seasonal temperature changes, whose temperature ranges between −40 ºC in winter and 30 ºC in summer. This instrumentation illustrated characteristics of temperature variations and snow pack dynamics under different land cover types.
Fanqiang Lin, Xuben Wang, Kecheng Chen, Depan Hu, Song Gao, Xue Zou, and Cai Zeng
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 209–221,Short summary
The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a receiver system for the synchronous acquisition of multiple electromagnetic signals in transient electromagnetic prospecting to achieve multiparameter and multichannel synchronous reception. The reliability, practicability, and data validity of the receiver were verified by different kinds of testing. It can be used for the reception of pseudorandom signals and distributed 3-D data, which can improve geophysical exploration efficiency.
Nissaf Boudhina, Rim Zitouna-Chebbi, Insaf Mekki, Frédéric Jacob, Nétij Ben Mechlia, Moncef Masmoudi, and Laurent Prévot
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 151–167,Short summary
To provide reliable time series of evapotranspiration, we evaluated the performances of four different gap-filling methods when tailored to conditions of hilly crop fields. The tailoring consisted of splitting the time series beforehand on the basis of upslope and downslope winds. The obtained accuracies on evapotranspiration after gap filling were comparable to those previously reported over flat and mountainous terrains, and they were better with the most widely used gap-filling method.
Prasanna Mahavarkar, Jacob John, Vijay Dhapre, Varun Dongre, and Sachin Labde
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 143–149,Short summary
The authors have successfully recommissioned an unused tri-axial Helmholtz coil system. The system now serves as a national facility for calibrating magnetometers.
Martin Schrön, Steffen Zacharias, Gary Womack, Markus Köhli, Darin Desilets, Sascha E. Oswald, Jan Bumberger, Hannes Mollenhauer, Simon Kögler, Paul Remmler, Mandy Kasner, Astrid Denk, and Peter Dietrich
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 83–99,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a unique technology to monitor water storages in complex environments, non-invasively, continuously, autonomuously, and representatively in large areas. However, neutron detector signals are not comparable per se: there is statistical noise, technical differences, and locational effects. We found out what it takes to make CRNS consistent in time and space to ensure reliable data quality. We further propose a method to correct for sealed areas in the footrint.
Xinyue Zhang, Qisheng Zhang, Meng Wang, Qiang Kong, Shengquan Zhang, Ruihao He, Shenghui Liu, Shuhan Li, and Zhenzhong Yuan
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 495–503,Short summary
We believe that our study full-waveform voltage and current recording device for MTEM transmitters makes a significant contribution to the literature because this full-waveform recording device can be used to monitor the high-power, full-waveform voltages and currents of MTEM transmitters. It has high precision, finer edge details, low noise, and other advantages. Hence, it can be used for real-time recording and transmission to the receiver for coherent demodulation.
Peter W. Thorne, Fabio Madonna, Joerg Schulz, Tim Oakley, Bruce Ingleby, Marco Rosoldi, Emanuele Tramutola, Antti Arola, Matthias Buschmann, Anna C. Mikalsen, Richard Davy, Corinne Voces, Karin Kreher, Martine De Maziere, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 453–472,Short summary
The term system-of-systems with respect to observational capabilities is frequently used, but what does it mean and how can it be assessed? Here, we define one possible interpretation of a system-of-systems architecture that is based upon demonstrable aspects of observing capabilities. We develop a set of assessment strands and then apply these to a set of atmospheric observational networks to decide which observations may be suitable for characterising satellite platforms in future work.
Alexandre Gonsette, Jean Rasson, Stephan Bracke, Antoine Poncelet, Olivier Hendrickx, and François Humbled
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 439–446,Short summary
Absolute magnetic measurements require the vertical and the geographic north as reference directions. We present here a novel system able to measure the direction of the magnetic field and of the vertical and true north. A design of a north seeker is proposed that takes into account sensor bias as well as misalignment errors. Different methods are derived from this model and measurement results are presented. A measurement test at high latitude is also shown.
Wilhelm Nikonow and Dieter Rammlmair
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 429–437,Short summary
This work describes a new approach to use fast X-ray fluorescence mapping as a tool for automated mineralogy applied on thin sections of plutonic rocks. Using a supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral maps are obtained for modal mineralogy and image analysis. The results are compared to a conventional method for automated mineralogy, which is scanning electron microscopy with mineral liberation analyzer, showing a good overall accuracy of 76 %.
E. William Worthington and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 419–427,Short summary
We have compared two methods of performing Absolute observations of the Earth's magnetic field. The newer, Residual method was evaluated for use at USGS geomagnetic observatories and compared with measurements using the traditional Null method. A mathematical outline of the Residual method is presented, including more precise conversions of the Declination angles to nanoTeslas (nT). Results show that the Residual method is better than the Null method, especially at high latitude.
Achim Morschhauser, Gabriel Brando Soares, Jürgen Haseloff, Oliver Bronkalla, José Protásio, Katia Pinheiro, and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 367–376,Short summary
We report on the history and recent developments of the Tatuoca magnetic observatory in Brazil. This observatory is located close to the geomagnetic equator and within a region of strong main field dynamics. Starting from 2015, we have installed new instrumentation and a new datalogger system. In the paper, we also comment on the challenges of doing absolute measurements at the geomagnetic equator.
Antoine Poncelet, Alexandre Gonsette, and Jean Rasson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 353–360,Short summary
In this paper, we give some background on calibration and verification of our automatic DI-flux instrument and then compare the automatic absolute magnetic measurements with the human-made and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of automatic measurements.
Alexandre Gonsette, Jean Rasson, and François Humbled
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 361–366,Short summary
We present a novel method for calibrating magnetic observatories. We show how magnetometer baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a method based on high-frequency automatic absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting raw data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where covered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.
Achim Morschhauser, Jürgen Haseloff, Oliver Bronkalla, Carsten Müller-Brettschneider, and Jürgen Matzka
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 345–352,Short summary
A modern geomagnetic observatory is expected to record geomagnetic data with high stability, high resolution, and high reliability. Also, geomagnetic observatories may be located in remote areas, requiring low power consumption and simple maintenance. Here, we present a new data logger system that was designed to meet these criteria. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and includes a modular C++ software package which can be adapted to specific observatory setups.
Xinyue Zhang, Qisheng Zhang, Xiao Zhao, Qimao Zhang, Shenghui Liu, Shuhan Li, and Zhenzhong Yuan
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 209–215,Short summary
In this study, we propose a more accurate method for calculating the current velocity from the nanovolt-scale current-induced electric field as measured using an expendable current profiler (XCP). In order to confirm the accuracy of the proposed data processing method, a sea test was performed, wherein ocean current/electric field data were collected from the sea surface to a depth of 1000 m using an XCP.
Thomas Albin, Detlef Koschny, Sirko Molau, Ralf Srama, and Björn Poppe
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 125–140,Short summary
The Canary Islands Long-Baseline Observatory (CILBO) is a stereoscopic camera setup on the Canary Islands Tenerife and La Palma. Both cameras observe the same volume in the sky to determine high-precision orbits of entering meteoroids. Both cameras are identical; however they show different brightness or velocity distributions of the observed meteors. This work analyses different observational bias effects to determine and understand, e.g. camera pointing or observation time-dependent effects.
Fred Sigernes, Pål Gunnar Ellingsen, Noora Partamies, Mikko Syrjäsuo, Pål Brekke, Silje Eriksen Holmen, Arne Danielsen, Bernt Olsen, Xiangcai Chen, Margit Dyrland, Lisa Baddeley, Dag Arne Lorentzen, Marcus Aleksander Krogtoft, Torstein Dragland, Hans Mortensson, Lisbeth Smistad, Craig J. Heinselman, and Shadia Habbal
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 9–14,Short summary
The total solar eclipse event on Svalbard on 20 March 2015 gave us a unique opportunity to image the upper parts of the Sun's atmosphere. A novel image accumulation filter technique is presented that is capable of distinguishing features such as loops, spicules, plumes, and prominences from intense and blurry video recordings of the chromosphere.
Timo Sukuvaara, Kari Mäenpää, and Riika Ylitalo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 513–520,Short summary
FMI's combined road weather station (RWS) and roadside unit (RSU) in Sodankylä is a unique research platform combining very advanced road weather measurements with a versatile collection of the most common wireless communication methodologies used in a vehicular environment. Together with harsh Arctic road weather conditions it represents an incomparable development environment and pilot RWS station within the field of intelligent transport systems and vehicular networking.
Brian J. Jackel, Craig Unick, Fokke Creutzberg, Greg Baker, Eric Davis, Eric F. Donovan, Martin Connors, Cody Wilson, Jarrett Little, M. Greffen, and Neil McGuffin
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 493–512,Short summary
In order to compare auroral observations, it is necessary to ensure that all instruments are properly calibrated. This can be difficult to achieve with different instruments operated for extended intervals at remote field sites under harsh conditions. Astronomical sources can be used for independent absolute calibration procedures. Under ideal conditions Jupiter is an excellent source, as it can provide more light than the brightest star. We use Jupiter to calibrate an auroral MSP network.
Sindulfo Ayuso, Juan José Blanco, José Medina, Raúl Gómez-Herrero, Oscar García-Población, and Ignacio García Tejedor
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 437–449,Short summary
A new software coincidence method is shown which can be used to replace conventional coincidence detection with the same effectiveness. Our easy-to-build trial prototype has cost EUR 150 and replaces at least three conventional coincidence modules (over EUR 6000). This has allowed us to carry out experiments that we could not before because of the lack of resources. It detects coincidence, stores timestamp data and transfers them to a PC, allowing easier adjustments and simpler interconnections.
Elena Kozlovskaya, Janne Narkilahti, Jouni Nevalainen, Riitta Hurskainen, and Hanna Silvennoinen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 365–382,Short summary
The paper describes the history and the present state of instrumental seismic observations at the University of Oulu and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory in northern Finland that started in 1950s. This includes both seismic observations at permanent seismic stations and temporary seismic experiments by portable seismic equipment. We describe the instrumentation and major research topics of seismic group at the SGO and discuss the plans for their future development.
Jakke Sakari Mäkelä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tapani Koskela, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Vladimir Savastiouk, Hanne Suokanerva, Jussi Kaurola, Antti Arola, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Outi Meinander, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Anu Heikkilä
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 193–203,Short summary
We describe the steps that are used at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to process spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation measurements made with its three Brewer spectrophotometers, located in Sodankylä (67° N) and Jokioinen (61° N). Multiple corrections are made to the data in near-real time and quality control is also performed automatically. Several data products are produced, including the near-real-time UV index and various daily dosages, and submitted to databases.
Simone Bircher, Mie Andreasen, Johanna Vuollet, Juho Vehviläinen, Kimmo Rautiainen, François Jonard, Lutz Weihermüller, Elena Zakharova, Jean-Pierre Wigneron, and Yann H. Kerr
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 109–125,Short summary
At the Finnish Meteorological Institute in Sodankylä and the Danish Center for Hydrology, calibration functions for organic surface layers were derived for two in situ soil moisture sensors to be used in the validation of coarse-resolution soil moisture from satellites and land surface models. There was no clear difference in the data from a variety of humus types, strengthening confidence that these calibrations are applicable over a wide range of conditions as encountered in the large areas.
Jaakko Ikonen, Juho Vehviläinen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Tuomo Smolander, Juha Lemmetyinen, Simone Bircher, and Jouni Pulliainen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 95–108,Short summary
A comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. We present the soil moisture observation network and the results of comparisons of top layer soil moisture between 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI product soil moisture retrievals.
Abdel-Monem, M. S., Benbrook, J. R., Osborne, A. R., Sheldon, W. R., Choate, L. M., Magnuson, C. E., Duller, N. M., and Green, P. J.: Cosmic ray muon spectra at zenith angles 65° and 80° using the AMH Magnetic Spectrometer, in: 14th International Cosmic Ray Conference, München, 15–29 August 1975, 6, p. 2043, 1975.
Achard, P., Adriani, O., Aguilar-Benitez, M., et al.: Measurement of the atmospheric muon spectrum from 20 to 3000 GeV, Phys. Lett. B, 598, 15–32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2004.08.003, 2004.
Agostinelli, S., Allison, J., Amako, K., et al.: Geant4 – a simulation toolkit, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, 506, 250–303, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8, 2003.
Allkofer, O. C., Bella, G., Dau, W. D., Jokisch, H., Klemke, G., Oren, Y., and Uhr, R.: Cosmic ray muon spectra at sea-level up to 10 TeV, Nucl. Phys. B, 259, 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(85)90294-9, 1985.
Barrett, P. H., Bollinger, L. M., Cocconi, G., Eisenberg, Y., and Greisen, K.: Interpretation of cosmic-ray measurements far underground, Rev. Mod. Phys., 24, 133–178, 1952.
Beringer, J., Arguin, J.-F., Barnett, R. M., et al.: Review of particle physics, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 010001, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.010001, 2012.
Carbone, D., Gibert, D., Marteau, J., Diament, M., Zuccarello, L., and Galichet, E.: An experiment of muon radiography at Mt Etna (Italy), Geophys. J. Int., 196, 633–643, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt403, 2013.
Cârloganu, C., Niess, V., Béné, S., Busato, E., Dupieux, P., Fehr, F., Gay, P., Miallier, D., Vulpescu, B., Boivin, P., Combaret, C., Labazuy, P., Laktineh, I., Lénat, J.-F., Mirabito, L., and Portal, A.: Towards a muon radiography of the Puy de Dôme, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 55–60, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-2-55-2013, 2013.
De Lellis, G., Consiglio, L., Strolin, P., et al.: Muon radiography with nuclear emulsions: stromboli and other projects, in: MUOGRAPHERS2014, Tokyo, 2014.
Furuya, M., Okubo, S., Tanaka, Y., Sun, W., Watanabe, H., Oikawa, J., and Maekawa, T.: Caldera formation process during the Miyakejima 2000 volcanic activity detected by spatio-temporal gravity changes, Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi), 110, 217–225, 2001.
Gaisser, T. K.: Semi-analytic approximations for production of atmospheric muons and neutrinos, Astropart. Phys., 16, 285–294, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-6505(01)00143-8, 2002.
Geospatial Information Authority of Japan: Press release on 08 October, available at: http://www.gsi.go.jp/WNEW/PRESS-RELEASE/2014-goudou1008.html, last access: 16 December 2014.
Groom, D. E., Mokhov, N. V., and Striganov, S. I.: Muon stopping power and range tables 10 MeV–100 TeV, Atom Data Nucl. Data, 78, 183–356, https://doi.org/10.1006/adnd.2001.0861, 2001.
Haino, S., Sanuki, T., Abe, K., et al.: Measurements of primary and atmospheric cosmic-ray spectra with the BESS-TeV spectrometer, Phys. Lett. B, 594, 35–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2004.05.019, 2004.
Hernández, I., Hernández, P., Pérez, N., Tanaka, H., Miyamoto, S., Barrancos, J., and Padrón, E.: Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain, EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 7–12 April 2013, EGU2013-953, 2013.
Japan Meteorological Agency: Press release on 3 February, available at: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1102/03a/yochiren110203.html and http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:No+Title#0, last access: 15 December 2014, 2013.
Jokisch, H., Carstensen, K., Dau, W., Meyer, H., and Allkofer, O.: Cosmic-ray muon spectrum up to 1 TeV at 75degree zenith angle, Phys. Rev. D, 19, 1368–1372, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.19.1368, 1979.
Kasahara, K. and Cohen, F.: A new parallel processing scheme enabling full Monte Carlo EAS simulation in the GZK Energy Region, in: 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 4, 581–584, available at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ICRC....4..581K, last access: 15 December 2014, 2008.
Kobayashi, T., Umehara, T., Uemoto, J., and Satake, M.: Volcanic monitoring by polarimetric and interferometric airborne SAR (Pi-SAR2), in: 2013 Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR), Tsukuba, 23–27 September 2013, 487–490, 2013.
Kusagaya, T., Tanaka, H., Taketa, A., Maekawa, T., and Yokoyama, I.: Development of a multifold segmented muon detection system to improve the maximum resolvable distance of muography, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting, Chiba, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting, Japan Geoscience Union, 19–24 May 2013, SVC48-06, 2013.
Lesparre, N., Gibert, D., Marteau, J., Déclais, Y., Carbone, D., and Galichet, E.: Geophysical muon imaging: feasibility and limits, Geophys. J. Int., 183, 1348–1361, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04790.x, 2010.
Lesparre, N., Gibert, D., Marteau, J., Komorowski, J.-C., Nicollin, F., and Coutant, O.: Density muon radiography of La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano: comparison with geological, electrical resistivity and gravity data, Geophys. J. Int., 190, 1008–1019, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05546.x, 2012.
Matsuno, S., Kajino, F., Kawashima, Y., Kitamura, T., Mitsui, K., Muraki, Y., Ohashi, Y., Okada, A., Suda, T., Minorikawa, Y., Kobayakawa, K., Kamiya, Y., Nakamura, I., and Takahashi, T.: Cosmic-ray muon spectrum up to 20 TeV at 89° zenith angle, Phys. Rev. D, 29, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.29.1, 1984.
Miyamoto, S., Bozza, C., Ambrosio, N. D., De Lellis, G., Nakamura, M., Rescigno, R., Russo, A., Shimizu, H., Sirignano, C., Stellacci, S., Strolin, P., Tanaka, H., and Tioukov, V.: The first radiography result of the latest lava dome in Unzen by cosmic muons, EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 22–27 April 2012, EGU2012-1938-1, 2012.
Nakada, S., Nagai, M., Yasuda, A., Shimano, T., Geshi, N., Ohno, M., Akimasa, T., Kaneko, T., and Fujii, T.: Chronology of the Miyakejima 2000 eruption: characteristics of summit collapsed crater and eruption products, Journal of Geography, 110, 168–180, 2001.
Nakada, S., Nagai, M., Kaneko, T., Suzuki, Y., and Maeno, F.: The outline of the 2011 eruption at Shinmoe-dake (Kirishima), Japan, Earth Planets Space, 65, 475–488, https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2013.03.016, 2013.
Oláh, L., Barnaföldi, G. G., Hamar, G., Melegh, H. G., Surányi, G., and Varga, D.: CCC-based muon telescope for examination of natural caves, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 1, 229–234, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-1-229-2012, 2012.
Shimono, T., Minami, H., Nishii, Y., Ohno, H., and Watanabe, K.: Observation of volcanic crater of Mt. Kirishima (Shinmoedake) by Airborne SAR, Bulletin of the GSI (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan), 121, 189–194, 2011.
Smith, J. A. and Duller, N. M.: Effects of pi meson decay-absorption phenomena on the high-energy mu meson zenithal variation near sea level, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2297, https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ064i012p02297, 1959.
Tanaka, H. K. M.: Particle geophysics, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 42, 535–549, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-054632, 2014.
Tanaka, H. K. M. and Yokoyama, I.: Possible application of compact electronics for multilayer muon high-speed radiography to volcanic cones, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 263–273, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-2-263-2013, 2013.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Nagamine, K., Kawamura, N., Nakamura, S. N., Ishida, K., and Shimomura, K.: Development of the cosmic-ray muon detection system for probing internal-structure of a volcano, Hyperfine Interact., 138, 521–526, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020843100008, 2001.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Nakano, T., Takahashi, S., Yoshida, J., Takeo, M., Oikawa, J., Ohminato, T., Aoki, Y., Koyama, E., Tsuji, H., and Niwa, K.: High resolution imaging in the inhomogeneous crust with cosmic-ray muon radiography: the density structure below the volcanic crater floor of Mt. Asama, Japan, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 263, 104–113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.001, 2007a.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Nakano, T., Takahashi, S., Yoshida, J., Ohshima, H., Maekawa, T., Watanabe, H., and Niwa, K.: Imaging the conduit size of the dome with cosmic-ray muons: the structure beneath Showa-Shinzan Lava Dome, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22311, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031389, 2007b.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Uchida, T., Tanaka, M., Shinohara, H., and Taira, H.: Cosmic-ray muon imaging of magma in a conduit: degassing process of Satsuma-Iwojima Volcano, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036451, 2009a.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Uchida, T., Tanaka, M., Takeo, M., Oikawa, J., Ohminato, T., Aoki, Y., Koyama, E., and Tsuji, H.: Detecting a mass change inside a volcano by cosmic-ray muon radiography (muography): first results from measurements at Asama volcano, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L17302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039448, 2009b.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Uchida, T., Tanaka, M., Shinohara, H., and Taira, H.: Development of a portable assembly-type cosmic-ray muon module for measuring the density structure of a column of magma, Earth Planets Space, 62, 119–129, https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2009.06.003, 2010a.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Taira, H., Uchida, T., Tanaka, M., Takeo, M., Ohminato, T., Aoki, Y., Nishiyama, R., Shoji, D., and Tsuji, H.: Three-dimensional computational axial tomography scan of a volcano with cosmic ray muon radiography, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B12332, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007677, 2010b.
Tanaka, H. K. M., Kusagaya, T., and Shinohara, H.: Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano, Nature Communications, 5, 3381, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4381, 2014.
Tsuji, S., Katayama, T., Okei, K., Wada, T., Yamamoto, I., and Yamashita, Y.: Measurements of muons at sea level, J. Phys. G Nucl. Partic., 24, 1805–1822, https://doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/24/9/013, 1998.